Both loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggest that PGC-1β i

Both loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggest that PGC-1β is involved in transcriptional activation of SREBP-1c in response to RBP4 treatment. The depletion of PGC-1β strongly abolished the inductive effects of RBP4 on lipogenic gene transcription. In contrast, the overexpression of PGC-1β potently enhanced RBP4-mediated lipogenic gene transcription. Selleck Fulvestrant Thus, PGC-1β is primarily responsible for the lipogenesis effect of RBP4. Furthermore, we provide the novel findings that RBP4 stimulates Ppargc1b expression in HepG2 cells. RBP4 treatment increases PGC-1β

mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in hepatocytes. RBP4 treatment was also found to increase PGC-1β protein expression. However, RBP4 had little effect on Ppargc1α, the other isoform of PGC-1. Several pieces of data link PGC-1β with the LXR pathway.[28] PGC-1β coactivates LXR on both a synthetic reporter gene containing multimerized binding elements and an endogenous promoter in an LXR ligand-dependent manner. More important, PGC-1β is recruited to the promoter region of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) and ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and activates the expression of these LXR target genes.[40] We show here that RBP4 increased the recruitment of

PGC-1β to the LXREs of specific SREBP-1c target genes implicated in hepatic lipogenesis, leading to their up-regulation and enhanced de novo TAG synthesis. Thus, LXRE is permissive for lipogenesis by RBP4 in hepatocytes. Although studies in this field MCE公司 have not elucidated how LXR activates the pathways of lipid transport in hepatocytes,

the ability of PGC-1β to modulate LXR target gene expression in cultured cells and in vivo suggests that PGC-1β elicits at least a proportion of this hyperlipidemia through the coactivation of LXR. Taken together, it is clear that PGC-1β couples these two important aspects of lipid metabolism in liver, i.e., lipid synthesis by way of the coactivation of the SREBPs and lipoprotein secretion by way of the coactivation of LXR and likely other transcription factors. Next, we explored the potential underlying mechanism by which RBP4 augments PGC-1β transcription. CREB is a cellular transcription factor that binds to certain DNA sequences called CRE, thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of downstream genes.[41] Our study implicates the activation of CREB as a mechanism by which RBP4 increases PGC-1β expression. The ChIP assay revealed the direct binding of CRE to a noncanonical CRE motif upstream of the transcription initiation site of PGC-1β. This binding was enhanced by RBP4 treatment. Further studies indicate that CREB Ser133 is the critical target involved in the transcriptional induction of Ppargc1b induced by RBP4.

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