In the present study, we examined check details the effects of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of RNA encoding the human Kv1.2 alpha subunit. Gintonin treatment inhibited Kv1.2 channel activity in reversible and concentration-dependent manners. The inhibitory effect of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity was blocked by active phospholipase C inhibitor,
inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and intracellular Ca2+ chelator. The co-expression of active receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTP alpha) with Kv1.2 channel greatly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity, but attenuation was not observed with catalytically inactive RPTP alpha. Furthermore, neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor site-directed mutation of a tyrosine residue (Y132 to Y132F), which is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase of the N-terminal of the Kv1.2 channel alpha subunit, significantly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity. These results indicate that the gintonin-mediated Kv1.2 channel regulation involves the dual coordination of both
selleck products tyrosine kinase and RPTP alpha coupled to this receptor. Finally, gintonin-mediated regulation of Kv1.2 channel activity might explain one of the modulations of gintonin-mediated neuronal activities in nervous systems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved,”
“Renal proximal tubular damage and repair are hallmarks of acute kidney injury. As glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) is an important cellular regulator of survival and proliferation, we determined its role during injury and recovery of proximal tubules in a mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxic model of acute kidney injury. Renal proximal tubule-specific GSK3 beta knockout mice exposed to mercuric chloride had improved survival and renal function compared to wild-type mice. Apoptosis, measured by TUNEL staining, Bax activation, and caspase 3 cleavage, was reduced in the knockout mice. The restoration of renal structure, function, and cell proliferation was also accelerated
in the GSK3 beta knockout mice. Microtubule Associated This enhanced repair, evidenced by increased Ki-67 and BRDU staining, along with increased cyclin D1 and c-myc levels, was recapitulated by treatment of wild-type mice with the small-molecule GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 following injury. This confirmed that hastened repair in the knockout mice was not merely due to lower initial injury levels. Thus, inhibition of GSK3 beta prior to nephrotoxic insult protects from renal injury. Such treatment after acute kidney injury may accelerate repair and regeneration. Kidney International (2012) 82, 1000-1009; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.239; published online 11 July 2012″
“In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze gender differences in recent studies of mathematics performance.