In regards to FM, there were significant condition (p ≤ 0 05, ES

In regards to FM, there were significant condition (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.5) effects, with greater FM (g) in the middle aged (60-wk) control (+49%) but not in the middle aged HMB condition,

compared to the baseline young animals (Figure 3). Moreover, FM was significantly lower (-56%) in the very old HMB (102-wk) but not in the control condition compared to the 86 wk. old baseline animals. Functionality measures All test reliability scores for functionality were above .9. There were significant condition (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.7) effects for normalized selleckchem grip strength in which strength was lower in the control condition, but was maintained in the HMB condition when comparing 44 to 60 wks. of age animals (Table 2). In old animals, normalized strength increased by 23% (p < 0.05) when comparing 86 to 102 wks. of age with HMB, with no change in the control condition. There see more was a condition https://www.selleckchem.com/CDK.html effect (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.4) for incline plane performance, which was greater in the 60 wk hmb condition than 44 wk condition, but was not different than baseline in the 60 wk control condition. Both old groups declined in incline plane performance relative to the 44 wk baseline group of animals. Table 2 The Effects of Aging and HMB on Neuromuscular Function   Normalized Grip StrengthA Incline Plane (angle in degrees)A 44 wks Control 4.5 ± 0.7 45.2 ± 1.7 60 wks Control 3.6 ± 0.3*$ 47.6

± 2.1 60 wks HMB 4.2 ± 0.4 51.0 ± 2.7*# 86 wks Control 3.3 ± 0.6*[email protected] 40.0 ± 1.6*#$ 102 wks Control 3.2 ± 0.6*[email protected] 41.0 ± 1.6*#$ 102 wks HMB 3.8 ± 0.5* 40.2 ± 1.7*#$ A indicates

a main condition effect. * indicates p < 0.05, significantly different from 44 wks, $ indicates p < 0.05, significantly different from 60 wks HMB, # indicates p < 0.05, significantly different Axenfeld syndrome from 60 wks control, @ indicates p < 0.05, significantly different from 102 wks HMB Diffusion tensor imaging determined myofiber dimensions We analyzed the GAS and SOL muscles and calculated the DTI parameters for those muscles (Figure 4). Fractional anisotropies (FA), apparent diffusion coefficients (AP), and eigenvalues [33] 1, 2, and 3 were investigated. There was a main condition effect for FA for the GAS (Figure 4A) (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.5) and SOL (Figure 4B) (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.5) muscles (Figure 4). Post hoc analysis revealed that while FA was significantly greater in the 102-wk control from both 44 and 86 wk., the 102-wk HMB condition only differed from 44 wk. No changes in FA occurred from 44 to 60 wk. in any of the conditions. There was a main condition effect for the GAS (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.4) and SOL (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.4) muscles for λ 2, indicative of myofiber CSA. There was also a main condition effect in the GAS (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.4) and SOL (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 0.4) muscles for λ 3, also indicative of myofiber CSA. Post hoc analysis revealed that λ 2 was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the SOL and GAS in the 86-wk and 102-wk control group.

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