Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic complication of both clinical and experimental diabetes. Previous studies suggested that hyperglycemia
and hyperlipidemia are the common characteristics of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in experimental rats.29 In the present study, mTOR inhibitor total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased in rats by methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii as compared to diabetic controls. The reduction in cholesterol level may be due to inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii on 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase), the rate-regulatory enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis 30 or by stimulating effect of glucose utilization by peripheral tissues. 31 The increased concentration of cholesterol could result in a relative molecular ordering of the residual phospholipids resulting in a decrease in membrane fluidity. 32 Accumulation of triglycerides is one of the risk factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). The significant increase in the level of triglyceride of diabetic control
rats may be due to the lack of insulin. Since under normal condition, insulin activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase and hydrolysis triglyceride.33 However, in diabetic state lipoprotein lipase is not activated due to insulin deficiency resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii reduces triglycerides learn more in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats and may prevent the progression of CHD. The abnormally
high concentration of serum lipids in diabetes mellitus is SB-3CT mainly due to an increase in the mobilization of free fatty acids from the peripheral fat deposits (adipose tissue) due to the under utilization of the glucose.34 Regarding the mechanism of action of methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii may enhance activity of enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis and its excretion and this may have decreased in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. The lipid lowering effect of the extract might be due to the action of flavanoids and other phenolic compounds, di and triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides. Normalized rate of lipogenesis is due to the insulin-like activity of triterpenoids 35 or activating normoglycemia by the insulinotropic effect of flavanoids 36 or the lipid lowering property of phenolic compounds. 37 Enzymes directly associated with the conversion of aminoacids to ketoacids are AST and ALT. Inflammatory hepatocellular disorders results in extremely elevated transaminase levels.38 The increase in the activities of plasma AST and ALT indicated that diabetes may be induced hepatic dysfunction. Supporting our findings it has been found by Larcan et al.39 that liver was necrotized in diabetic patients. Chronic mild elevation of aminotransferase is frequently found in type 2 diabetic patients.