However, agents to enhance blood flow for performance enhancement

However, agents to enhance blood flow for performance enhancement in sport have been subject to patent protection and in one case, the composition contains the active agents as sodium nitrite/nitrate [21]. The possibility that use of the other supplement products may lead to the use of dangerous products is the primary concern. Clearly, the clinical applications of nitrite are immense despite the potential drawbacks of, yet to be fully explored, therapeutic windows [3]. Recent

reports of nitrite induced cardiovascular protection, based on proteome changes [24], have yet to be ascribed a mechanism. However, it is clear that oxidative damage occurs, as shown by the authors, which may elicit the protective effects leading to questions regarding long term use [24]. In recent years, there has been spreading speculation regarding the potential misuse of Trichostatin A cost vasodilators by the athletic population [25]. PDE-5 inhibitors are currently not prohibited by the WADA but the agency has funded research to investigate the performance-enhancing potential of sildenafil

[12]. Nitrite/Nitrate and related products are not on the WADA prohibited list of chemicals either; and as an endogenous species and component of foodstuffs a regulatory test is unlikely. From our current knowledge of doping reports, athletes are willing to use non-prohibited and OTC medications to boost their athletic performance [10–12]. It is concerning that these products frequently fall outside selleck chemicals llc of medical supervision. Thus, a more acceptable policy is warranted, along with public awareness initiatives. Conclusions This report demonstrates that, in contrast to interest in prescription vasodilators, athletes

exhibited an increasing interest in “”nitric-oxide precursor”" vasodilators as observed in the DID™ records. There was a marked increase in inquiries made about these supplements leading up to the Beijing Olympics. Without medical supervision, use of vasodilators, especially (sodium) nitrite is potentially very serious and the adverse effects should be publicised. Acknowledgements The authors thank UK Sport, especially Joe Marshall, Jerry Bingham and Allison Holloway, for facilitating access to the DID™ database. The study was partially supported by the South West London Academic Alliance. References 1. Zhang Z, Naughton D, Winyard PG, Benjamin Amrubicin N, Blake DR, Symons MCR: Generation of nitric oxide by a nitrite reductase activity of xanthine oxidase: A potential pathway for nitric oxide formation in the absence of nitric oxide synthase activity. MI-503 datasheet Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998, 249:767–72.CrossRefPubMed 2. Cosby K, Partovi KS, Crawford JH, Patel RP, Reiter CD, Martyr S, Yang BK, Waclawiw MA, Zalos G, Xu X, Huang KT, Shields H, Kim-Shapiro DB, Schechter AN, Cannon RO, Gladwin MT: Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by deoxyhemoglobin vasodilates the human circulation. Nature Med 2003, 9:1498–505.CrossRefPubMed 3.

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