HBx can repress the transcription of p21WAF1 and p16INK4A, leading to increase the rate and level of activation of the CDK2 and CDK4. HBx also inhibit the pRb tumor suppressor and increase E2F1 activity, and regulate the expression of MDM2, cyclin D1 and Pritelivir cyclin B1. Ultimately, HBx has been shown to stimulate cell cycle progression by accelerating transit through the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints . In brief, regardless of the mechanism, the aberrant gene expression and deregulated of these pathways ultimately leads to generate a unique response, the acceleration of cell cycle progression and cell growth, increased differentiation
and proliferation, repression of apoptosis, and contribute to cell survival and oncogenesis. Discussion Developing an HBV-human interactome Doramapimod datasheet network by mapping the interactions of viral proteins with host proteins may give us a comprehensive view of viral infection at the protein level, and provide clues to understanding the development of end-stage complications such as cirrhosis and HCC. In this study, we used an NLP method to analyze the PubMed literature database for articles regarding HBV and human protein interactions. With an exhaustive analysis of the literature and databases, we identified 146 HHBV that are crucial for hepatitis B virus infections. These HHBV are involved in numerous functions associated with oncogenesis, and through screening and mapping the HHCC,
we found that about half of the HHBV were also hepatocellular carcinoma-associated proteins such as IL6, STAT3, MMP9, TGFB1  and TP53 . This may explain why hepatitis B virus is the primary risk factor for the development of HCC. The Gene ontology analysis show that most of the functional profiling (such as transcriptional activity, DNA binding, kinase find more activity and signal transducer activity) and biological processes (such as cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell development) are thought to play important
roles in the pathogenesis of HCC. KEGG functional annotation was used to analyze the biological functions of HHBV-HHCC. 83% of HHBV-HHCC could be mapped to 9 pathways (P < 0.01) (Additional file 1, Table S8), apoptosis, cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and ErbB signaling pathway 4��8C were significantly enriched (P < 0.0001). Although this approach is biased because functions have not yet been attributed to all proteins, it remains a powerful way of incorporating conventional biology into systems-level data sets. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a key role in the innate immune system, particularly in the inflammatory response against invading pathogens . In PBMCs of HBV-infected patients, TLR7 expression and TLR9 mRNA are down-regulated, but TLR9 shows increased protein expression , which may play important roles in cancer cells.