GFAP-Cre FasLfl/fl mice were unable to resolve EAE and suffered f

GFAP-Cre FasLfl/fl mice were unable to resolve EAE and suffered from persisting demyelination and paralysis, while FasLfl/fl control mice recovered. In contrast to FasLfl/fl mice, GFAP-Cre FasLfl/fl mice failed to induce Dinaciclib molecular weight apoptosis of Fas+ activated CD4+ T cells and to increase numbers of Foxp3+ Treg cells beyond day 15 post immunization, the time

point of maximal clinical disease in control mice. The persistence of activated and GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells in GFAP-Cre FasLfl/fl mice also resulted in an increased IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF, and GM-CSF mRNA expression in the CNS. In vitro, FasL+ but not FasL− astrocytes induced caspase-3 expression and apoptosis of activated T cells. In conclusion, FasL expression of astrocytes plays an important role in the control and elimination of autoimmune T cells from the CNS, thereby determining recovery from EAE. EAE is a widely used animal model to study MS, an inflammatory demyelinating Ferroptosis inhibitor disease mediated by accumulation of T lymphocytes and macrophages in the CNS [1, 2]. EAE can be induced by either active immunization with myelin Ags including myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide or passive transfer of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells, which are both initiators and effectors of EAE. Among CD4+

T lymphocytes, GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells, IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cells, and IL-17-secreting Th17 cells have been identified as the most important mediators in the immunopathogenesis of EAE [3-6] and all of them can

induce EAE independently, although recent studies point to an essential role of GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells, which can induce EAE independent of IFN-γ and IL-17 [7]. Infiltrating T lymphocytes trigger an inflammatory response in the CNS culminating in demyelination and axonal damage clinically resulting in paralysis [8]. Correspondingly, recovery from EAE requires termination of inflammation and the induction of T-cell Endonuclease apoptosis in the CNS [9]. Fas ligand (FasL; CD95L), a cytotoxic cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily, acts through Fas, a death receptor of the TNFR superfamily, to induce programed cell death via caspase signaling [10]. Local expression of FasL in immunoprivileged organs including eyes, testis, and placenta is essential for deletion of infiltrating inflammatory cells [11-13]. Fas/FasL interaction is of particular importance for homeostasis of the immune system and its dysregulation has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases. Mice carrying autosomal recessive mutations in the Fas (lpr) and FasL (gld) genes develop a spontaneous autoimmune syndrome similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus [14, 15].

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