For these different gases, we examined the etch rate and pattern transfer anisotropy to get all parameters for obtaining the designed pattern. PAA mask formation The PAA thin films used in this work were
formed in oxalic acid aqueous solution (5 w.t.%) at a constant voltage of 40 V. The initial Al thickness was 1.3 μm, deposited by e-gun evaporation. Some of the samples were subjected to an annealing step before anodization (at 500°C for 30 min). In all cases, the anodization was performed in two steps and under the same experimental Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor conditions for all samples. The final PAA thickness was different from one sample to another, depending on the thickness of the sacrificial layer formed during the first anodization step. Three layer thicknesses were used: BKM120 mouse 390, 400, and 560 nm. The sample characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Characteristics of the PAA layers in the three different samples used in this work PAA thickness (nm) Pore size in nm after pore widening for 40 min Annealing Sample 1 390 35 – 45 No Sample 2 560 35 – 55 Yes Sample 3 400 35 – 45 Yes All samples were subjected to pore widening and removal of the barrier layer from pore base to get vertical pores that reach the Si substrate. An example of SEM image of the surface of an optimized PAA film used in this work is depicted in Figure 2. In this sample, the Al film was not annealed
before anodization. The average pore size was 45 nm, and the PAA film thickness was 390 nm. Figure 2 High magnification top view SEM image of sample 1. The PAA film
thickness of sample 1 is 390 nm, and the average pore diameter is about 45 nm. Reactive ion etching Lenvatinib ic50 of Si through the PAA mask The mechanisms involved in reactive ion etching combine Selleckchem I-BET151 physical (sputtering) and chemical etching. The gases or mixture of gases used and the RIE power and gas pressure are critical parameters that determine the etch rate. The etch rate is also different on large Si surface areas compared to the etch rate through a mask with nanometric openings. In this work, the PAA mask used showed hexagonally arranged pores with size in the range of 30 to 50 nm and interpore distance around 30 nm. Three different gases or gas mixtures were used: SF6 (25 sccm), a mixture of SF6/O2 (25 sccm/2.8 sccm), and a mixture of SF6/CHF3 (25 sccm/37.5 sccm). In the first case, the etching of Si is known to be isotropic, while in the last two cases, it is more or less anisotropic. Separate experiments were performed for each gas mixture. In all cases, we used three different etching times, namely, 20, 40, and 60 s. The conditions used for the RIE were as follows: power 400 W and gas pressure 10 mTorr. An example of SEM image from sample 1 after RIE for 20 s in the three different gases/gas mixtures is shown in Figure 3.