Following acquisition with no (0-sec) delay between the offset of the sample and the onset of the comparison stimuli, delays of variable duration are introduced. The resulting retention functions are taken as a measure of memory. We suggest that, in addition to memory loss due to the delay, the comparison
of matching accuracy at the 0-sec training delay with relatively novel test delays may produce a generalization decrement that varies as a function of increasing delay. We tested this hypothesis by training pigeons with a mixed delay procedure from the start and found that the retention functions for these pigeons were significantly Elafibranor in vitro shallower than those for a control group trained with 0-sec delays and tested with longer delays, and, although reduced in magnitude, the differences persisted for as many as 15 sessions. We propose that a measure of animals’ working memory can be obtained uninfluenced by a generalization decrement if they have received comparable training with all of the delays that are tested.”
“Ror1 and Ror2, a small family of tyrosine kinase receptors, have been implicated in multiple aspects of brain development in C. elegans and X laevis. More recently,
we have shown that these receptors modulate the rate of neurite elongation in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. However, no information is available regarding a potential role of these receptors in other developmental milestones in mammalian central neurons. Neither is the identity known of the Ror ligand(s) and/or the signal transduction pathway(s) in which they participate. Here we report that
find more the down regulation of either Ror1 or Ror2 led to a significant Tideglusib decrease in synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Simultaneous targeting of Ror proteins, however, did not result in an additive phenotype. Our results also indicated that Ror1 and Ror2 physically interact in the mouse brain, suggesting that they might function as heterodimers in central neurons. In addition, these Ror complexes interacted with Wnt-5a mediating its effects on synaptogenesis. Together, these data suggest that Ror proteins play a key role in Wnt-5a-activated signaling pathways leading to synapse formation in the mammalian CNS. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“During brain development neural stem cells may differentiate to neurons or to other cell types. The aim of this work was to assess the role of cGMP (cyclic GMP) in the modulation of differentiation of neural stem cells to neurons or non-neuronal cells. cGMP in brain of fetuses was reduced to 46% of controls by treating pregnant rats with nitroarginine-methylester (L-NAME) and was restored by co-treatment with sildenafil.Reducing cGMP during brain development leads to reduced differentiation of stem cells to neurons and increased differentiation to non-neuronal cells.