Figure 5 Integration of the


Figure 5 Integration of the

transciptome Pifithrin-�� clinical trial and the proteome. (A). The overlaps of DEGs and DEPs were analysed (The DEGs were genes with RPKM ratios ≥ 2 and a FDR ≤ 0.001; the DEPs were proteins that appeared at least twice in three replicates). (B). GO enrichment analysis of overlaps between DEGs and DEPs. GO terms of biological process were analysed and significantly enriched catalogues are shown (P-value < 0.01). (C). Clustered DEGs in COG function analysis of overlaps between DEGs and DEPs. Discussion E. faecium is a part of the normal flora in human and animal intestines and is a ubiquitous opportunistic nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium was isolated from spacecraft-associated environments for the first time in 2009 [44]. Immune system suppression may make crew members susceptible to E. faecium during spaceflight. Furthermore, the virulence of E. faecium may be enhanced during spaceflight. There is no comprehensive genetic information currently available for E. faecium after spaceflight, which makes it difficult to study the pathogenicity of the organism after exposure to this unique environment. We originally planned to research the impact of spaceflight

environments on bacteria using E. faecium as a model. However, because the subculture may also produce unknown mutations, we cannot exclusively determine that the mutations identified after spaceflight were caused by the spaceflight environment. However, we did not obtain any mutants from the ground control strain subcultures. We were still interested in revealing the possible mechanisms of the mutant AZD7762 nmr compared to the control strain using multiple ‘omics’ analysis. This study presents the whole genome, transcriptome and proteome of a mutant E. faecium strain. Our results show that 2,777 genes

were predicted, and two point mutations were identified and were located in dprA and a transcriptional regulator (ArpU family). Masitinib (AB1010) DprA was described as a member of a recombination-mediator protein family, which is required for natural transformation relating to horizontal gene transfer in bacteria [45–48]. ArpU was reported to control the muramidase-2 export, which plays an important role in cell wall growth and division. Mutation of arpU may lead to serious metabolic effects [43]. The transcriptome and proteome analysis suggests that the differentially expressed genes and proteins are mainly distributed in pathways involved in glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, predicted general function, energy production and conversion, replication, recombination and repair, cell wall, membrane biogenesis, etc.

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