Edited by: Mobile DNAII Washington, DC: American Society of Micr

Edited by: Mobile DNAII. Washington, DC: American Society of Microbiology; 2002:305–366. 30. Foster J, Ganatra M, Kamal I, Ware J, Makarova K, Ivanova N, Bhattacharyya A, Kapatral V, Kumar S, Posfai J, Vincze T, Ingram J, Moran L, Lapidus A, Omelchenko M, Kyrpides N, Ghedin E, Wang S, Goltsman E, Joukov V, Ostrovskaya O, Tsukerman K, Mazur M, Comb D, Koonin E, Slatko B: The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi : endosymbiont evolution within a human pathogenic nematode. PLoS Biol 2005, 3:E121.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

31. Ehrman L, Powell JR: The Drosophila willistoni species group. Ashburner, Carson, Thompson 1981–1986, 193–225. this website 32. Miller WJ, Riegler M: Evolutionary dynamics of w Au-like Wolbachia variants in Neotropical Drosophila species. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006, 72:826–835.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 33. Kidwell MG, Novy JB: Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster : sterility resulting from gonadal dysgenesis in the P-M system. Genetics 1979, 92:1127–1140.PubMedCentralPubMed 34. Poinsot D, Montchamp-Moreau C, Merçot H: Wolbachia segregation rate in Drosophila simulans naturally bi-infected cytoplasmic lineages. Heredity (Edinb) 2000,85(Pt 2):191–198.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that

they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DIS and WJM conceived the study. DIS, LK, AEL and WJM designed and performed the experiments. WJM provided material. DIS, LK, AEL and WJM analyzed the data. DIS, LK and WJM wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.”
“Background Formation of persister cells by bacteria is a phenomenon that, amongst check details others, contributes to tolerance of a bacterial subpopulation to antimicrobial agents. Notably, this antibiotic tolerance of persister cells is distinct from genetically inherited resistance. The persister

cell subpopulation has been firstly described and named nearly 70 years ago [1] and research on persister cells has identified a number of typical characteristics as debated recently [2]. Bacterial persister cells seem to represent a stage of dormancy that protects them from killing by antimicrobial substances, 4��8C even in the presence of concentrations which vastly exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Persister cells are genetically identical to antibiotic sensitive bacteria within a population, but have a distinct phenotype in that they are tolerant to certain antibiotics [3]. Since most antibiotics target bacterial components or pathways involved in replication, the dormancy stage in persister cells is Temsirolimus cell line thought to be the underlying mechanism of antibiotic tolerance [4]. Nevertheless, persister celIs can switch from the dormant into a replicating stage. This ‘bet-hedging’ strategy is thought to be a survival strategy of microbial populations [5]. Two different types of persister cells have been postulated.

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