“Determining the mechanical response of thin films by diffraction-based methods requires appropriate elastic models. Weighting factors associated with the linear combination of Reuss and Voigt x-ray elastic constants are compared to the experimental values determined through linear, least-squares regression of diffraction data collected from multiple reflections of several materials. It is found that the optimal weighting factors, x*, determined by the experimental data of Cu, Ni, and Ti thin films vary significantly from those calculated under the Kroner and Neerfeld limits.
The discrepancies may be due to plastic MAPK Inhibitor Library manufacturer effects on the mechanical models that assume linear elastic behavior. The corresponding residual stress values under these Selleck Staurosporine limits exhibit
a closer correspondence, where the relative variation among the mechanical models scales with the elastic anisotropy of the material. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Natural populations of Daphnia are genetically heterogeneous with regard to phenotypic response to modification in the food quantity (a set of metric quantitative traits). In the majority of the traits, three genetically determined response types to the environmental factor studied have been detected: arithmetic means decrease (R1), increase (R2) or remain constant (St) as a result of a decrease in the food quantity. This phenotypic response was shown to occur in the whole set of the metric traits studied, irrespective of physiological specialization. The problems of assessment of genetic population structure based on phenotypic response of the individuals reflected in quantitative traits are discussed.”
“Background: Ultrasound (US) guidance, in some instances, can increase the success rate and reduce the onset and procedure
times for peripheral nerve blockade compared with traditional nerve localization techniques. The presumptive mechanism for these benefits is the ability to accurately inject local anesthetic circumferentially around the target nerve. We aimed to determine whether ensuring circumferential spread of local anesthetic is advantageous for SBE-β-CD Microbiology inhibitor US-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block.\n\nMethods: Sixty-four adult patients undergoing US-guided popliteal sciatic block for elective foot and ankle surgery were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, circumferential or single-location injection. Using a short-axis nerve view and out-of-plane needle approach, the needle tip was advanced to the posterior external surface of the sciatic nerve. A 30-mL local anesthetic admixture (1: 1 lidocaine 2%/bupivacaine 0.5% with 1: 200,000 epinephrine) was injected either entirely at this location (single location) or incrementally at multiple locations to ensure circumferential spread around the sciatic nerve (circumferential). Sensory and motor functions were assessed by a blinded observer at predetermined intervals.