In conclusion, our results highlight the fact that ecosystem func

In conclusion, our results highlight the fact that ecosystem functioning is a function of the biotic ecosystem components (Schläpfer and Schmid 1999), which vary in different ecological contexts

such as seasons. Moreover, results showed that different components of diversity, beyond species richness, may also shape the relationship between diversity and ecosystem function. In agreement with previous studies, our results also suggest that richness and evenness may not be correlated positively (Buzas and Hayek 1996, Stirling and Wilsey 2001). Specifically, the impact of S. muticum was related to its greater biomass in the invaded assemblages, although species interactions and season influenced the magnitude of the impact. The authors would like to thank Eva Cacabelos and Bernardete Lopes for their help in field work. We thank Stuart Jenkins for helpful English revision and two anonymous referees for providing valuable comments. This research Selleckchem BGB324 was funded by AXA-Marine Alien and Climate Change project. FVP was supported by a PhD grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and

Technology – FCT (SFRH/BD/33393/2008). FA was partially supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE – Operational Competitiveness Program and National Funds through FCT under the project “PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2011” and the FCT funded project CLEF (PTDC-AAC-AMB-102866-2008). “
“The genus Kobayasiella includes species difficult or DAPT even impossible to identify in LM. Only EM allows observation of the ultrastructural features helping in diagnostic species circumscription. Recent surveys of

the epilithic diatoms in the running waters of Reunion Island led to the discovery of a new species, K. bebourensis. This species selleckchem differs from all previously described ones by the uniseriate striae composed of areolae occluded by a cribrum. Besides, two other species, the so rarely recorded K. jaagii (F. Meister) Lange-Bert. and K. micropunctata (H. Germ.) Lange-Bert., were collected in two alpine lakes of the French Pyrenees. K. jaagii lacks an umbilicus in the raphe, which is considered one of the most important diagnostic criterions of the genus. However, this species shows a combination of characteristics including it within the genus Kobayasiella. K. micropunctata is a typical representative of the genus Kobayasiella matching all the ultrastructural features of the genus. K. bebourensis and K. micropunctata have a cingulum composed of at least three connecting bands. “
“Gelidium floridanum W.R. Taylor tetraspores are units of dispersal and are responsible for substrate attachment. This study aimed to examine evidence of direct interaction between germ tube formation and Golgi activity during tetraspore germination of G. floridanum. After release, the tetraspores were incubated with brefeldin A (BFA) in concentrations of 4 and 8 μM over a 6 h period.

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