concisus strains (Man et al , 2010b) In addition to this possibl

concisus strains (Man et al., 2010b). In addition to this possible link with CD, evidence has also accumulated over recent years to support the role of C. concisus in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis. Indeed recent literature has described

Ruxolitinib in vivo C. concisus as an emergent pathogen of the human gastrointestinal tract (Lindblom et al., 1995; Engberg et al., 2000; Aabenhus et al., 2002, 2005; Engberg et al., 2005). To further understand the relationship between C. concisus and its host, the aim of this study was to identify C. concisus proteins that were immunoreactive in patients with CD using immunoproteomics coupled with mass spectrometry. Campylobacter concisus UNSWCD, Campylobacter showae UNSWCD, C. jejuni 100 and Campylobacter ureolyticus UNSWCD human isolates were grown on Horse Blood Agar (Oxoid, Adelaide, SA, Australia) supplemented with 2 μg mL−1 fungizone (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Sydney, NSW, Australia). Cultures were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions generated using the CampyGen system (Oxoid). Sera were Dabrafenib research buy selected from 10 subjects with CD who tested positive

for C. concisus using PCR. Sera from a patient who tested negative for C. concisus were employed as a negative control. An additional selection criterion was the inclusion of sera with higher titers, as determined in our in-house C. concisus ELISA, as compared with those measured using a combination of antigens from a range of Campylobacter species as described by Zhang et al. (2009). Patient titers were 1: 1.787, 2: 1.616, 3: 2.211, 4: 1.787, 5: 2.241, 6: 2.193, 7: 2.211, 8: 1.922, 9: 1.904 and 10: 2.0297. Mean absorbance ± SD for the titers was 1.99 ± 0.22. All sera were used at a dilution of 1 : 250 in the immunoblotting analyses. To remove

possible cross-reacting antigens, 300 μg of C. showae UNSWCD, C. jejuni 100 or C. ureolyticus UNSWCD lysates was added to 100 μL of undiluted patients’ sera, and this was incubated overnight at 4 °C followed by centrifugation at 19 940 g for 15 min Glycogen branching enzyme at 4 °C. The supernatants were then used for immunoblotting at a dilution of 1 : 250. Serum from a C. concisus immunized rabbit was used as a positive control and was prepared by IMVS Veterinary Services ( Briefly, whole-cell C. concisus sonicates were subcutaneously injected into a rabbit every 3 weeks. The initial antigen dose was 100 μg, after which it was increased to 200 μg for the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th doses. Twelve weeks after the first booster injection, the animal was bled out and serum was collected. Rabbit serum was used at a dilution of 1 : 1000 for the Western blot analyses. For one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, bacterial cultures were centrifuged at 2879 g for 25 min at 4 °C, and the pellet was washed two times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the final wash, the cell pellet was disrupted by twice freeze–thawing and sonication, and resuspended in 1 mL PBS.

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