Cellular kinase responsible for NS5A hyperphosphorylation thus might be an alternative antiviral target next to enzymatic
CFTR activator viral proteins e. g. NS3 and NS5B. We have previously identified an NS5A phosphorylation site responsible for NS5A hyperphosphorylation. Phosphorylation level of this site increased upon viral infection; In addition, abrogation of its phosphorylation by mutation completely abolished viral replication, indicating its roles in HCV replication. In the present study, we sought to identify kinases responsible for NS5A phosphorylation at this site. Our bioinformatic analysis and the existing chemical proteomics data suggested a role of calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII) in NS5A phosphorylation at this site. Calmodulin inhibitor (W7) inhibited NS5A phosphorylation at this site and reduced HCV RNA levels in infected Huh7.5.1 cells
in a dosedependent manner. Similarly, CaMKII specific inhibitor (KN93) reduced NS5A phosphorylation and reduced HCV RNA levels in infected Huh7.5.1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Reverse transcription plus polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated expression of CaMKII gamma and delta in the Huh7.5.1 cells. Small hairpin RNA based gene knockdown of CaMKII selleck delta not gamma reduced HCV RNA levels in infected Huh7.5.1 cells. We conclude that CaMKII delta may be responsible for NS5A hyperphosphorylation at the identified site and that inhibition of CaMKII reduces NS5A phosphorylation and reduces HCV RNA levels in infected Huh7.5.1 cells. (This work is supported Acetophenone by NSC 101-2324-B-002-022 and NHRI EX10210213-BI, TAIWAN) Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Yi-Hung Chen, Ming-Jiun Yu BACKGROUND: Hepatitis
C virus (HCV) causes persistent infection in the majority of infected individuals. However, the mechanisms of persistence and clearance are only partially understood. CD81-CLDN1 co-receptor complex plays a pivotal role in initiation and maintenance of infection. A monoclonal antibody targeting the co-receptor complex has been shown to confer protection against HCV infection. AIM: We aimed to study the presence of anti-receptor autoantibodies in HCV infected patients and its correlation to persistence and spontaneous viral clearance. METHODS: Because of the central role of CD81-CLDN1 co-receptor complexes in HCV infection, we used a recombinant soluble CD81/CLDN1 protein to develop a novel sensitive ELISA that could detect low nanomolar concentrations of anti-CD81/CLDN1 antibodies. Using 50 serum samples from healthy individuals as control and a well defined cohort of single-source outbreak of HCV (Pestka, Zeisel et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.