bulgaricus (ATCC 11842) (Christian www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html Hansen A/S, Denmark) and L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53013) (a kind gift from Dr Seppo Salminen of University of Turku, Finland) were streaked onto deMan Rogosa Sharpe agar (Difco Laboratories) and incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2. Single colonies were
used to produce seed cultures (9 h), which were used to initiate 50-mL cultures. Bacteria were harvested at the late log phase (OD550 nm for L. casei, L. rhamnosus and L. bulgaricus were 5.7, 8.8 and 8.6, respectively, and the CFU were approximately 2 × 109, 1 × 109 and 3 × 109 mL−1, respectively) by centrifugation at 1699 g for 10 min at room temperature and washed twice with sterile saline (0.85% NaCl). The CFU were determined by plating serial dilutions of the bacterial GSI-IX research buy samples on deMan Rogosa Sharpe agar plates that were incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2. Lyophilized bacteria were prepared by freezing bacterial pellets (−80 °C for at least 9 h) that were washed with saline before overnight lyophilization in a freeze-dryer at −40 °C, vacuum pressure 400 mbar (Thermo Savant). Lyophilized bacteria were stored at −80 °C. The viability of the preparations was about 6%. All animal studies were conducted according to the Institutional Guidelines at the National University of Singapore. Spleens
isolated from female C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice (4–6 weeks old) were cut into small pieces and treated with 2 mg mL−1 collagenase (Sigma-Aldrich) in Roswell Park MG-132 cell line Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium for 25 min at 37 °C. The spleen pieces were further separated with a plunger of a 1-mL syringe and filtered through a 70-μm cell strainer (BD Falcon). The cell suspension was centrifuged at 453 g for 5 min and the pellet was resuspended in 1 mL of red blood cell lysis buffer (150 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM KHCO3 and 0.1 mM EDTA) and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. The cells were centrifuged at 453 g for 5 min, washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) twice and finally resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium
supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Hyclone), 2 mM l-glutamine (Gibco, Japan) and 50 μg mL−1 Penicillin G-Streptomycin (Sigma-Aldrich). The spleen cells were plated at a density of 2 × 106 cells per well in a 24-well plate (Nunc, Denmark) and cultured with either L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaricus or L. casei (2 × 108 CFU per well) at 37 °C for 6, 24, 48 and 72 h in 5% CO2. The coculture experiments were performed in the presence of antibiotics to prevent overgrowth of the bacteria and a decline in pH as a result of lactic acid production. The pH of the supernatants was monitored. Lyophilized lactobacilli in general induced a smaller decline in pH (0.1–0.2) compared with live bacteria (0.4–0.6) probably due to the low viability of these preparations. The lowest pH monitored was between 6.6 and 6.7 in cells treated with live bacteria and this is not expected to affect cytokine stability.