braziliensis (day 1) and were given 250 μg of the respective anti

braziliensis (day 1) and were given 250 μg of the respective antibody every 3 days for 3 weeks thereafter. Statistical analyses The data are reported as the mean ± SEM and are representative of two or three independent experiments. The means between different groups were compared by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey test for

unpaired values. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Kinetics of the SGE effect in the recruitment of leucocytes to the site of inoculation in BALB/c mice We analyzed the accumulation of leukocytes in the dermis after 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post-intradermal inoculation of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract (SGE) (0.5 pair of glands/mouse) into the ears of BALB/c mice. SGE induced neutrophils (GR1+MHC-II–) cell recruitment 6 hours PHA-848125 ic50 post-inoculation, which persisted for 48 hours. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells appeared 12 hours post-inoculation and persisted during all period analyzed. Macrophages (F4/80+CD11c- MHC-II+) cell accumulation was observed 12 hours after inoculation, and dendritic cells (CD11b+CD11c+MHC-II+) levels did not change (Figure  1A). Figure 1 Kinetics of the inflammatory infiltrate induced PLX3397 purchase by Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva at the site

of inoculation. BALB/c mice were inoculated intradermally within the ear dermis with half of the salivary gland extract (SGE) generated from the two salivary glands diluted in 10 μl of PBS (A) or a injection with PBS only (B). The leucocytes from three mouse ears/group were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after inoculation,

and different populations were identified using flow cytometry. The data showed represent the mean ± SEM and are representative of three independent experiments (n = 3). *P < 0.05 compared to 0 hours (naive). To determine that the leukocyte migration is SGE-specific and not due damage inflicted by the needle injection, the kinect of leucocyte migration after similar amounts of PBS (10 μL) inoculated into ears of mice was performed. As showed, the amounts of dendritic cells, neutrophils, macrophages in PBS-inoculated mice was similar in all time points analyzed and was comparable that those recovered Loperamide from naïve ears mice (Figure  1B), confirming the specificity of SGE in the leukocyte recruitment. Inflammatory infiltrate after one or three inocula of SGE Next, we determined whether saliva promotes or protects against leishmaniasis. First, we compared the inflammatory infiltrate after different injections of SGE. BALB/c mice received one or three intradermal ear injections of SGE, and the emigrated leucocytes were analyzed. As a control group, BALB/c mice were inoculated with PBS (time 0). Our results show that the SGE-1X group had an increased recruitment of different subtypes analyzed: CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+CD25+ cells, macrophage and neutrophil (Figure  2).

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