Antoce et al [11] successfully used calorimetric methods for the

Antoce et al. [11] successfully used calorimetric methods for the determination of inhibitory effects of alcohols on yeasts to avoid computational

errors based on direct assessment of bioactivity using turbidity. An important feature of this method was first noted in the study of Garedew et al. [12]: microcalorimetry can provide rapid detection of bacterial growth. If the number of bacteria in a calorimeter ampoule rise to about 104 cfu Adavosertib they can be detected by their heat production. If growth continues, the heat flow rate will continue to rise for some time. This was used to advantage in our laboratory in a recently published study in which we employed isothermal microcalorimetry for rapid detection of MSSA and other microorganisms

in blood products, i.e. platelet concentrates [13]. Still more recently, we also successfully determined the MIC of cefoxitin for mTOR inhibitor a MRSA strain and a MSSA strain [14]. However, IMC did not decrease the time for MIC determination because MICs are based on detection of growth at 24 hours. But more importantly, IMC with media containing added antibiotic concentrations provided a means for rapidly differentiating between MRSA and MSSA. In addition, it was apparent that the nature of the heatflow curves at subinhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic might provide new insights into ID-8 the way in which antibiotics affect growth rates. Therefore, we conceived this study. To further evaluate IMC we have now determined the MICs of 12 antibiotics for reference strains of five organisms, E. coli ATCC25922, S. aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212, and Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC27956. In the interest of brevity we report here only the results for E. coli ATCC25922 and S. aureus ATCC29213 as representatives for Gram- and Gram+ bacteria, respectively. Results As is evident in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the heat flow rate signals from blank ampoules (no inoculum) never

departed appreciably from baseline over the time of measurement. That is, the blanks produced no appreciable heat flow – especially compared to the peak values (often > 100 μW) measured when bacteria were present. Thus all heat flow signals above baseline could be attributed to bacterial activity and growth. Table 1 provides an overview comparing the MICs determined by IMC with those determined by a standard turbidometric method. It also provides a comparison of key growth-related calorimetric parameters determined at subinhibitory concentrations just below the MIC value: t delay (delay in time of onset of detectable heat flow), and P max (maximum rate of heat production). These and other calorimetric parameters pertinent to this study and derived from the data are explained and used in the Discussion section.

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