aid in this process, and community efforts, such as BioCreative,

aid in this process, and community efforts, such as BioCreative, have evaluated text mining systems applied to the biological domain. However, these tools are still not kinase inhibitor Temsirolimus being fully utilized by the broad biolo gical Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries user communities. Such a gap is partly due to the intrinsic complexity of biological text, the heteroge neity and complexity of the biocuration task, and to the lack of standards and close interactions between the text mining and the user communities that include biological researchers and database curators. Previous BioCreative challenges have involved experienced curators from spe cialized databases to generate gold standard data for training and testing of the systems. However, there Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries was little focus on development of inter active interfaces for curators, and limited interaction between curators and text mining developers related to tool development.

Earlier challenges involved many text mining teams in developing basic capabilities relevant to biological Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries curation, but they did not address the issues of system usage, insertion into the workflow and adop tion by curators or biologists in general. As Cohen and Hersh point out, the major challenge of biomedical text mining is to make the systems useful to biomedical researchers. This will require enhanced access to full text, better understanding of the feature space of biome dical literature, better methods for measuring the utility of systems to users, and continued interaction with the biomedical research community to ensure that their needs are addressed. This was the main motivation for introducing the InterActive Task in BioCrea tive III.

The long term goal of the IAT is to encourage the development of systems that address real life curation challenges by combining multiple Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries text mining component modules to retrieve literature and extract relevant information for integration into the curation workflow. To support the aims of the IAT in BC III, involvement of both developers and end users was solicited. The IAT was introduced as a demonstration task with the goal of using the results from BC III to provide the first steps towards the definition of metrics and acquisition of data that are necessary for designing a formal evaluation of the interactive systems in the next BioCreative IV challenge. In addition, it brought together the systems developers and the biocurators, to open a dialogue between these communities.

Related work In BC III, the IAT task dealt with two important aspects simultaneously, performance of the system and usability of the interface. Addressing performance of a task is the core of all BioCreative chal lenges. However, addressing usability Carfilzomib is a novel aspect. Usability is important because it enables the users to find, interact with, share, compare Tipifarnib leukemia and manipulate important information more effectively and efficiently. A study on usability of bioinformatics resources by Bolchini et al. has shown that usability issues were undermining the ability of users to find

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