In addition, knock-down of pro-IL-16 expression using #1 siRNA wa

In addition, knock-down of pro-IL-16 expression using #1 siRNA was further confirmed in Western blot analysis using fractionated samples; pro-IL-16 expression

in both nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts prepared from either non-treated or LPS-treated resting B cells was efficiently inhibited (Fig. 4B). ABT-737 research buy Collectively, we successfully impaired pro-IL-16 expression in 38B9 resting B cells using siRNA. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27kip plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation; degradation of p27kip stimulates cell-cycle transition from the G0 to the S phase, and this process is promoted by the G1 cyclin-CDK complex [25]. In addition, p27 kip downregulates tumour metabolism by changing the cell cycle [26], and its stability is affected by the SCFSkp2 ubiquitin E3 ligase complex [27]. Skp2 is a key component required for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of p27kip and these two molecules, Skp2 and p27kip, are inversely involved in cell-cycle

regulation. Because pro-IL-16 is known to be critically involved in cell-cycle progression in T cells and overexpression of pro-IL-16 inhibited proliferation of resting B cells, we investigated whether the inhibitory click here role of pro-IL-16 in resting B cell proliferation is associated with the levels of Skp2 and p27kip (Fig. 5). As shown in Fig. 5, knock-down of pro-IL-16 using siRNA resulted in the reduction of p27kip expression as evidenced by Western blot analysis. We detected increased SPTLC1 expression of Skp2 by knocking-down pro-IL-16 using siRNA, as expected. Although the difference between control and pro-IL-16

siRNA-treated cells was somewhat lower than that observed in LPS non-treated cells, pro-IL-16 siRNA treatment of 38B9 resting B cells reduced p27kip expression and increased Skp2 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that pro-IL-16 exerts its inhibitory function on resting B cell proliferation by reducing the level of Skp2, which degrades p27kip, thereby elevating levels of p27kip. We previously demonstrated that ERK/p38 MAP kinases are involved in mitogen-activated resting B cells proliferation and differentiation and that these kinases are also involved in MHC class II-mediated negative signalling [16, 17, 28]. Consequently, we examined the influence of knock-down of pro-IL-16 using siRNA on the level of MAP kinases (Fig. 6). As shown in Fig. 6, knock-down of pro-IL-16 increased the levels of activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases, but the level of activated JNK1/2 decreased. A similar pattern of ERK1/2, p38 MAP kinase and JNK1/2 expression was previously observed in LPS-treated resting B cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that pro-IL-16 transduces inhibitory signalling through MHC class II molecules by inhibiting MAP kinase activation.

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