86; 95% CI 076–098; P value for the trend = 0039) (Table 2) T

86; 95% CI 0.76–0.98; P value for the trend = 0.039) (Table 2). This

study clearly indicated that higher serum levels of direct bilirubin are significantly associated with a lower risk of developing NAFLD. Nevertheless, application of these results to the general population of either sex remains controversial because NASH was associated with a significantly decreased prevalence of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia,[41] and this Korean study was limited to men. UA is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism, and hyperuricemia is considered a metabolic disease; many studies have also reported a relationship between hyperuricemia and NAFLD. Li et al. examined the relationship between ICG-001 mw UA levels and NAFLD in a cross-sectional study among 8925 company Wnt inhibitor employees (6008 men) and showed that hyperuricemia,

as well as male gender, age, BMI, WC, GGT level, TG level, HDL-c level, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), was an independent risk factor for NAFLD (OR 1.291; 95% CI 1.067–1.567; P < 0.001) in multiple regression analysis (Table 1).[16] Sirota et al. conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 10 732 non-diabetic adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994 in the United States.[17] They defined sex-specific UA quartiles (≤ 5.2, 5.3–6.0, 6.1–6.9, and > 6.9 mg/dL for men and ≤ 3.7, 3.8–4.5, 4.6–5.3, and > 5.3 mg/dL for women) this website and revealed that the OR for the highest quartile was 1.43 (95% CI 1.16–1.76, P < 0.001) compared

with the lowest quartile after adjusting for demographic data, hypertension, WC, TG level, HDL-c level, HOMA-IR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and AST level (Table 1). In addition, Hwang et al. studied 9019 Korean individuals who visited a health checkup center and had UA levels within the normal range. These patients were categorized into four groups according to UA quartiles for both sexes, and the relationship between the UA level and the presence of NAFLD was examined.[18] After adjusting for age, smoking status, regular exercise, BMI, BP, FPG, TC level, TG level, HDL-c level, AST level, ALT level, and GGT level, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the presence of NAFLD in the subjects with the highest UA level was 1.46 (1.17–1.82) for men and 2.13 (1.42–3.18) for women as compared with the subjects with the lowest UA level (Table 1).

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