8) The data suggest that development of intestinal epithelial in

8). The data suggest that development of intestinal epithelial inflammation in response chemical information to high-fat feeding may impair food intake regulation and be a possible triggering mechanism in the appearance of hyperphagia and obesity. Fig. 8. Proposed model by which ingestion of HF diets leads to hyperphagia and obesity. It is proposed that ingestion of a HF diet leads to changes in gut microbiota, which, possibly with a decrease in IAP, leads to an increase in luminal LPS and TLR4 activation … GRANTS This work was funded by National Institutes of Health Grants DK-41004 (H. E. Raybould) and HL-55064 and the Richard A. and Nora Eccles Harrison Endowed Fund in Diabetes Research (J. C. Rutledge). Supplementary Material [Supplemental Methods] Click here to view.

Background and objectives: No medical treatment is available for polycystic liver disease, a frequent manifestation of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 6 months of octreotide (40 mg every 28 days) therapy limited kidney volume growth more effectively than placebo in 12 patients with ADPKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In this secondary, post hoc analysis of the above study, octreotide-induced changes in liver volumes compared with placebo and the relationship between concomitant changes in liver and kidney volumes were evaluated. Those analyzing liver and kidney volumes were blinded to treatment. Results: Liver volumes significantly decreased from 1595 �� 478 ml to 1524 �� 453 ml with octreotide whereas they did not appreciably change with placebo.

Changes in liver volumes were significantly different between the two treatment periods (?71 �� 57 ml versus +14 �� 85 ml). Octreotide-induced liver volume reduction was fully explained by a reduction in parenchyma volume from 1506 �� 431 ml to 1432 �� 403 ml. Changes in liver volumes were significantly correlated with concomitant changes in kidney volumes (r = 0.67) during octreotide but not during placebo treatment. Liver and kidney volume changes significantly differed with both treatments (octreotide: ?71 �� 57 ml versus +71 �� 107; placebo: +14 �� 85 ml versus +162 �� 114), but net reductions Brefeldin_A in liver (?85 �� 103 ml) and kidney (?91 �� 125 ml) volume growth on octreotide versus placebo were similar. Conclusions: Octreotide therapy reduces liver volumes in patients with ADPKD and is safe. Polycystic liver disease is the most frequent extrarenal manifestation of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) but may occur also as an isolated clinical entity (1). Prevalence in ADPKD increases with age and approximates 95% by the age of 35 years (2).

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