6, PCa) Owing to the low levels of CD3+ cells in both BPH and PC

6, PCa). Owing to the low levels of CD3+ cells in both BPH and PCa samples, it was not possible to distinguish CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte populations because of the low fluorescence signal. A negative correlation between PSA value and overall percentage of P+, CD3+CD56−P+, and CD3−CD56+P+ cells was observed only in PCa samples (Fig. 7, row A–C, PCa). In contrast,

in peripheral blood, there was no correlation Daporinad mw between PSA value and overall percentage of P+, CD3+CD56−P+ and CD3−CD56+P+ cells in any of the groups investigated (data not shown). In recent decades, the incidence of BPH and PCa has augmented owing to increasing life expectancy and advanced methods of diagnosis and treatment [21]. Both conditions are related to the chronic inflammatory process and are recognized as the consequence of an altered immune response [2]. It has also been shown that different immune-competent cells infiltrate healthy, BPH, and PCa gland tissue [3], but little is known about the expression Epigenetics activator of their cytotoxic molecules. In this study, we determined

the presence and expression levels of P in different lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and prostate tissue to elucidate the possible mechanism responsible for BPH and PCa progression. Although total P expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients with BPH and patients with PCa and control group, a low P expression was observed in the BPH and PCa tissue, indicating that local microenvironment has a strong effect on cytotoxic potential. This finding is consistent with the observation of Ebelt et al. [12] who reported that P-expressing

T lymphocytes are rare in BPH and, particularly, PCa tissue. This contrasts with the significantly higher number of P-expressing cells readily detectable in healthy prostate tissue [12 and our observation]. In the peripheral blood of patients with BPH, the percentage of P+ T lymphocytes was decreased because of a significant reduction in the CD4+P+ T subset, which may be because of their recruitment to the BPH tissue. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation of diffuse accumulation of CD3+ T cells, mostly of the CD4+ phenotype, in glandular epithelium and, less frequently, in the stroma of BPH tissue [12]. Vitamin B12 Additionally, in direct contrast to the findings in the prostate tissue, the peripheral blood of patients with BPH showed significantly lower percentage of CD3+P+ lymphocytes. These T lymphocytes contained P in their cytoplasmic granules at levels comparable with that of CD3+P+ lymphocytes infiltrating healthy prostate tissue. Immunofluorescence of BPH tissue samples revealed higher levels of NK cell infiltration, predominantly in the enlarged stroma. The recruitment of NK cells (rarely P+) in the BPH tissue was probably the result of local proinflammatory factor production.

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