54 Sulakvelidze A, Morris JG: Bacteriophages as therapeutic agen

54. Sulakvelidze A, Morris JG: Bacteriophages as therapeutic agents. Ann Med 2001, 33:507–509.PubMedCrossRef 55. Ritz HL, Kirkland JJ, Bond GG, Warner EK, Petty GP: Association of high levels

of serum antibody to staphylococcal toxic shock antigen with nasal Z-VAD-FMK nmr carriage of toxic shock antigen producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus . Infect Immun 1984, 43:954–958. 56. Kaliner MA: Human nasal respiratory secretions and host defense. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991, 144:S52–S56.PubMed 57. Rigby KM, DeLeo FR: Neutrophils in innate host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Semin Immunopath 2012, 34(2):237–259. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SC, SK: Conceived and designed the experiments; PG: Performed the experiments; SC, SK: Analyzed the data; SC, SK: Wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The essential trace elemental selenium (Se) is the 34th element on the periodic selleck kinase inhibitor table and plays a fundamental role in human health [1]. Se is involved in several major metabolic pathways,

such as thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems and immune function [2]. In humans, selenium has navigated a narrow range from dietary deficiency (<40 μg per day) to toxic levels (>400 μg per day) [3]. Selenium toxicity in humans has been reported in the Chinese provinces Hubei and Shaanxi and in Indian Punjab, where Se levels in locally produced foods were found to be very high (750–4990 μg per person and day) [4]. The variation of Se status in humans both related to either Se excess or deficiency largely depends on the diet consisting of various crops, GNAT2 vegetables, fruits and meat [1]. Therefore, it is essential to understand the factors controlling the dynamic distribution of Se in the environment. Microorganisms

are involved in the transformation of selenium from one oxidation state to another [5-7]. A few studies reported that bacteria oxidized selenium to Se(IV) and Se(VI) in soils [8,9]. The formation of volatile methylated selenium species was also studied in several bacteria [5,7,10]. In addition, numerous bacteria were shown to reduce Se(VI)/Se(IV) to elemental Se, visible as red-colored nano-selenium [11-16]. Se(IV)-reducing bacteria generate red-colored elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) either under aerobic or under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic Se(IV)-reducing bacteria encompass Thauera selenatis [17], Aeromonas salmonicida [18] and purple non-sulfur bacteria [14]. Aerobic bacteria involved in Se(IV) reduction include diverse species such as Rhizobium sp. B1 [19], Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 [11], Pseudomonas sp. CA5 [13], Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. [20]. However, the exact mechanism of selenium metabolism and reduction is still far from being elucidated.

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