5% in these men and of 44 8% in Nyanza province 17 Therefore, we

5% in these men and of 44.8% in Nyanza province.17 Therefore, we would argue that biology is likely to be the major contributor to the disproportionate impact of HIV within this community and area that was described earlier. The

level of immune activation in an individual may also be an important predictor of their susceptibility (if HIV uninfected) or infectiousness (if HIV infected). In keeping with this, immune activation is substantially dampened in rare individuals who are relatively resistant to HIV infection.61 HIV replicates more efficiently within activated CD4+ T cells,62 in part because cell activation leads to increased surface expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5.63 As immune activation and inflammation are key host responses to an invading pathogen, endemic infections such as malaria in an HIV-infected individual would be expected to indirectly increase virus replication and blood levels, and thereby causing selleck products the enhanced HIV transmission that was described in the previous section. BV and genital co-infections such as HSV-2 lead to dramatic increases in activated Midostaurin CD4+ T cells directly within the genital mucosa of an HIV-infected individual,64–66 and therefore may have an even greater effect on the genital HIV viral load and subsequent HIV transmission. Systemic immune activation may be increased in healthy African individuals67–69 and might be hypothesized

to increase HIV susceptibility, although at least part of this phenomenon is probably driven by higher rates of co-infections such Resveratrol as HSV-270 and geohelminths67–69 that were often not screened in these studies. Whether this systemic immune activation increases the per-exposure HIV acquisition risk may hinge on whether it is associated with a corresponding increase in HIV-susceptible target cells at the site of virus exposure (i.e., the mucosal lining of the cervix, vagina, rectum or penis). While HSV-2 is clearly associated with increases in activated T cells within both the

genital tract and blood,65,70 it is not known whether non-sexually transmitted infections (malaria and so on) have the same effect. Interestingly, recent work from our group demonstrated higher numbers of activated CD4+ target cells in the female genital tract of young women from Kisumu (Nyanza province, Kenya) compared to San Francisco (USA), independent of genital co-infections or other behavioural practices.71 These data are summarized in Fig. 1, which shows that the total number of activated CD4+ T cells collected on a cytobrush was increased in Kisumu women (Fig. 1a); this was not attributed to higher overall CD4+ T cell numbers, but rather to substantial increases in the percentage of CD4+ T cells that were activated (Fig. 1b). In addition, vaginal levels of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an innate mucosal immune protein with anti-HIV properties in vitro,72 were substantially lower in Kisumu participants (Fig. 1a).

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