5-HT, but not the two 5-HT2C receptor agonists, inhibited escape performance. In the elevated T-maze, inhibitory avoidance and escape responses have
been related to generalized anxiety and panic attacks, respectively. The behavioral effects caused by 5-HT and MK-212 were fully blocked by previous local microinjection of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB-242084. Intra-dPAG injection of MK-212 also GW3965 failed to affect escape expression in another test relating this behavior to panic, the electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Overall, the results indicate that 5-HT2C receptors in the dPAG are preferentially involved in the regulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety, but not panic. This finding extends to the dPAG the prominent role that has been attributed to 5-HT2C receptors in anxiety generation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
was assessed of a new, rapid, visual and qualitative immunoassay for the detection of HIV p24 antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Characterised serum or plasma specimens from patients diagnosed with HIV infection were tested: 179 samples of known Ab-positive patients harbouring different subtypes of Talazoparib cost HIV-1 (n = 154) and HIV-2 (n = 25) and 200 samples from individuals not infected with HIV. The assay’s Ag sensitivity was assessed by testing HIV seroconversion panels (n = 10) and primary HIV infection specimens (n = 57). In addition, the influence of the genetic variability of HIV-1 on Ag detection was evaluated using dilutions of culture supernatants infected with different subtypes (n = 50). The performance of the rapid test was compared to a “”gold standard”" testing algorithm with the use of a single Ag ELISA and with the Vironostika (R) HIV Uni-Form II Nitroxoline Ag/Ab test, a fourth-generation ELISA. The new assay, the Determine (TM) HIV-1/2 Combo demonstrated 100% (98.2-100.0) Ab specificity (200/200) and 100% (98.0-100.0) Ab sensitivity (179/179). In these samples, the observed Ag sensitivity was 86.6% (58/67) with the Determine (TM) HIV-1/2 Combo test and 92.5% (62/67) with the Vironostika compared to the
reference single Ag ELISA. The assay could not detect Ag in one group 0, one subtype F and two subtype H cell supernatant isolates. None of the HIV-2 Ag could be detected. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated the impact of electric shocks frequently used to model post-traumatic stress disorder in rodents on behaviors relevant to drug abuse in rats. Rats exposed to 10 shocks of 3 mA over 5 min showed a robust conditioned fear 28 days later, which confirms the traumatic nature of shock exposure. A different set of rats was studied in the conditioned place preference paradigm beginning with the 27th post-shock day. 10 mg/kg morphine induced a marked place preference in both shocked and non-shocked rats.