, 1998; Rosario-Sim & O��Connell, 2009; Way, Stauber, Nakkula, & London, 1994) but not in African-American adolescents (Gritz et al., 1998) or adolescents at a predominantly African-American together and Puerto Rican/Dominican inner-city school (Way et al., 1994). Similar to gender, race is another important factor that may have important implications when examining the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes. Aims of the Current Review Adults with depression smoke at higher rates than other adults leaving a large segment of this population, who already incur increased health-related risks, vulnerable to the enormous personal and societal consequences of smoking. The impact that depression has on smoking cessation outcomes is not clear from past research.
Past meta-analytic reviews on this topic have been necessarily limited by the inclusion criteria for formal statistical analyses. A broad and comprehensive review of published studies on depression and smoking cessation outcomes, critical to understand the current state of the field, has not yet been conducted. In addition, little is known about the smoking behavior of smokers with depressive disorders other than past depression (e.g., smokers with current depression or minor depression). Further, mixed results have been reported regarding gender and racial differences in smoking behavior and meta-analytic reviews of depression and smoking cessation outcomes have been limited in their ability to closely examine gender or race. Understanding how depression has been studied in past smoking cessation research is critical to direct lines of future research.
The primary aims of this review are: (a) to synthesize the research on smoking cessation outcomes by depression over a 20-year period, (b) to examine the gender and racial composition of studies examining the role of depression in smoking cessation outcomes, and (c) to use this review to identify directions for future research. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search using the terms ��clinical trial,�� ��depression,�� and ��smoking cessation�� to identify papers published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010. After removing duplicate articles, the remaining articles were individually examined to determine whether they met inclusion criteria, namely, that they (a) were clinical trials for smoking cessation, (b) assessed depression at baseline, (c) analyzed endpoint smoking outcomes by depression, and (d) were published in English.
Information was then gathered from each paper that met the criteria to be included in the review: location of research (country), type of funding, sample (e.g., general population versus a subgroup of smokers), sample size, gender composition, racial composition, mean age, type of smoking treatment(s), type of depression assessed GSK-3 (e.g.