122 But paternal strain tumours are rejected post-pregnancy. Thus, ‘tolerance’ is rather hypo-responsiveness. Seminal fluid is required as are the cells in the ejaculate. Therefore,
‘tolerance’ is prepared before implantation,122 also possibly via embryo signals such as PIF67 and follicular fluid G-CSF . In conclusion, transient hypo-responsiveness, but not classical tolerance, exists in the uterus and to a lesser extent, systemically. This is not because of a single mechanism – each one acting as back up, should others fail. Considerable progress has been made Erlotinib manufacturer since I began my research in 1974. For this anniversary issue, I recall that at the New York Mount Sinai hospital 1980 meeting, these questions were raised. Nowadays, although experiments were then ‘basically correct’,83 one is impressed by the complexity unravelled which testifies for the strength and development of our field. Note: An extended INCB018424 concentration version of this review (350 references, 15100
words, Word format) will be sent by email upon request to: [email protected] “
“The generation of effective type 1 T helper (Th1)-cell responses is required for immunity against intracellular bacteria. However, some intracellular bacteria require interleukin (IL)-17 to drive Th1-cell immunity and subsequent protective host immunity. Here, in a model of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination in mice, we demonstrate that the dependence on IL-17 to drive Th1-cell
responses is a host mechanism to overcome bacteria-induced IL-10 inhibitory effects. We show that BCG-induced prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) promotes the production of IL-10 which limits Th1-cell responses, while simultaneously inducing IL-23 and Th17-cell differentiation. The ability of IL-17 to downregulate IL-10 and induce IL-12 production allows the generation of subsequent Th1-cell responses. Accordingly, BCG-induced Th17-cell responses precede the generation of Th1-cell responses in vivo, whereas the absence of the IL-23 pathway decreases BCG vaccine-induced Th17 and Th1-cell Atezolizumab immunity and subsequent vaccine-induced protection upon M. tuberculosis challenge. Importantly, in the absence of IL-10, BCG-induced Th1-cell responses occur in an IL-17-independent manner. These novel data demonstrate a role for the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in driving Th1-cell responses, specifically to overcome IL-10-mediated inhibition and, furthermore, show that in the absence of IL-10, the generation of BCG-induced Th1-cell immunity is IL-17 independent. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a crucial worldwide health problem. Approximately one-third of the world’s population is latently infected with M.