[12], namely the HLA-DQB1*02:02 subtype, an eventual allele for A

[12], namely the HLA-DQB1*02:02 subtype, an eventual allele for ABPA–CF susceptibility and HLA-DQB1*02:01, a possible allele of ABPA–CF protection. The difference between DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*02:02 is in exon 3 (amino acid 135). The DQB1*02:01 allele is genetically linked to DQA1*05:01 and has classically been associated with celiac disease, Type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases. However, DQB1*02:02 is linked to several DQA1 alleles, namely DQA1*02:01 and DQA1*03:03. Thus, in future studies we will investigate other HLA genes to clarify other possible associations. In addition, because ABPA is an uncommon complication of CF, it will also be important to further investigate and corroborate

these interesting findings with a larger number Selleck GDC973 of patients in the future. We found no differences between the groups used as comparison controls, which consolidates our findings. Our findings allow us to both corroborate and rule out partnerships with primary genetic pathology in patients with CF. With regard to patients with asthma, they allow us to discard possible associations with other allergic pulmonary pathology and, by making comparisons with healthy subjects, to determine general population frequencies. NVP-LDE225 In this context, several reports have shown that a strong Th2 response to A. fumigatus antigens, as indicated by prominent eosinophil infiltration, could be responsible for development of ABPA [21, 22].

Thus, it is possible that particular HLA class II alleles play critical roles in the outcome of T-cell responses (Th1 vs Th2) to A. fumigatus antigens. Thus, patients with CF but without ABPA who Astemizole lack permissive alleles possibly have Th1 type responses against the fungus A. fumigates, which would prevent colonization of the lung and development of ABPA. The opposite situation would occur in patients with ABPA–CF and susceptibility alleles; they mount a Th2 type response [11, 15]. In this context, other authors have also demonstrated that altered T cell receptor-mediated signals can lead to altered T lymphocyte phenotypes [23]. This

does not mean that a susceptibility allele alone can cause ABPA; however, these alleles could influence the outcome of exposure to A. fumigatus. In conclusion, these data corroborate previous studies showing correlations between HLA-DRB1*15:01, –DRB1*11:01, –DRB1*11:04, –DRB1*07:01, –DRB1*04 alleles, and ABPA–CF susceptibility. Indeed, our data show that HLA-DQB1*02:01 is a possible ABPA–CF resistance allele. This work was possible in part thank to technical support from projects from Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria (FIS) (PI11/02686) (CIBERehd) funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain and Seneca Foundation No. 04487/GERM/O6 y CajaMurcia. None of the authors has a conflict of interest to disclose. We confirm that we have read the journal’s position on issues involved in ethical publication and we affirm that this report is consistent with those guidelines.

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