The terrestrial slug Limax has a highly developed

The terrestrial slug Limax has a highly developed HSP signaling pathway olfactory center, the procerebrum, in which the LFP spontaneously oscillates. Although changes in the oscillatory frequency are thought to correspond to the preference for specific odors, our knowledge about the mechanism of this frequency regulation is limited. To clarify the mechanism of the bidirectional frequency changes in the procerebrum,

we focused on the neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide), which is known to have neuromodulatory functions in invertebrate nervous systems. Application of FMRFamide decreased the oscillatory frequency via G-protein-mediated cascades. Immunohistochemistry showed that FMRFamide-like-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies are located in the cell mass layer

of the procerebrum, projecting their neurites to the neuropile layers. The procerebrum was shown to also receive innervation from other regions of the cerebral ganglion. Furthermore, according to their morphological and projection characteristics, FMRFamide-containing neurons belong to the subpopulations of both bursting and nonbursting neurons in the procerebrum. The mRNA splice variant encoding multiple copies of canonical FMRFamide was specifically expressed in the procerebrum. Taking into account previous results showing that serotonin increases the oscillatory frequency, our results indicate that FMRFamide and serotonin both regulate the LFP frequency but in exactly the opposite direction in the olfactory center of the terrestrial slug. “
“A principle that arises from a body of previous work is that each presynaptic terminal click here recognises its postsynaptic partner and that each postsynaptic site recognises the origin of the synaptic bouton innervating it. In response, the presynaptic terminal sequesters the proteins whose interactions result in the dynamic transmitter release pattern and chemical modulation appropriate for that connection. In parallel, the postsynaptic site sequesters,

inserts or captures the receptors and postsynaptic density proteins appropriate for that type of synapse. The focus of this review is the selective clustering of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) at synapses made by each class of inhibitory interneurone. This provides a system in which the mechanisms underlying transynaptic recognition can be explored. There Parvulin are many synaptic proteins, often with several isoforms created by post-translational modifications. Complex cascades of interactions between these proteins, on either side of the synaptic cleft, are essential for normal function, normal transmitter release and postsynaptic responsiveness. Interactions between presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins that have binding domains in the synaptic cleft are proposed here to result in a local cleft structure that captures and stabilises only the appropriate subtype of GABAARs, allowing others to drift away from that synapse, either to be captured by another synapse, or internalised.

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