The study area is extended to the 200-m isobath on the continenta

The study area is extended to the 200-m isobath on the continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean as an alongshore boundary, and Ocean City Inlet, MD and Cape Hatteras, NC as northern and southern cross-shore boundaries, respectively. As for the water elevation, two types of boundary conditions

are considered to resolve tidal and sub-tidal (primarily induced by meteorological forcing) flows: a Dirichlet-type (clamped) condition (Bills, 1991 and Reid, 1990) for the harmonic constants of nine constituents (M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, M4, M6, K2, and Q1), and a Flather-type radiation condition for the sub-tidal component (Flather, 1976 and Carter and Merrifield, 2007). An analytical model by Janowitz and Pietrafesa (1996) was used to determine spatial and temporal variations of sub-tidal elevation on the open boundaries during storm events, based on the balance between the production of relative vorticity by bottom Ekman layer pumping and the topographically induced vertical velocity. In this study, the alongshore direction coordinate needs to be transformed from the original due to the consideration of the surge propagation direction and the decision to neglect the bottom friction-induced selleck vertical velocity term from the original form. The results from the analytical model compared well with coastal observations (Cho, 2009). The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) has

provided salinity observations in the Bay and its tributaries from 1984 to the present. Salinity is monitored at 49 stations, and sampling occurs once a month during the late fall and winter and twice a month in the warmer months at approximately Oxaprozin 1–2 m intervals (CBP, 1993). Outside the Bay, including the continental shelf region, salinity data are provided by the CORIOLIS Data Center ( Salinity profiles from Argo profilers or oceanographic vessels (XBT,

CTD) are collected and controlled in real time by CORIOLIS and analyzed in real time once a week. Salinity fields are obtained on a grid with one-third-degree resolution in latitude and longitude at 57 vertical levels down to 2000 m in the Atlantic Ocean using the objective analysis method (Bretherton et al., 1976). Thus, using the vertical profiles of salinity at all available stations and grid points, initial conditions can be generated at each vertical layer and linearly interpolated in space. The Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) software is incorporated into this interpolation method. Spatially and temporally linearly-interpolated CORIOLIS salinities are imposed as open boundary conditions. Temperature was not explicitly modeled, as salinity dominates the baroclinic effect (Seitz, 1971, Goodrich et al., 1987 and Guo and Valle-Levinson, 2008). Model-data comparison involves a quantitative evaluation of the performance of the model.

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