In both cases FXIII activity and FXIII-A antigen were undetectabl

In both cases FXIII activity and FXIII-A antigen were undetectable in the plasma and platelet lysate. In the plasma no FXIII-A2B2 antigen was found, while FXIII-B antigen was >30% in both cases. Proband1 was a compound heterozygote possessing a known missense mutation (c.980G>A, p.Arg326Gln) and a novel splice–site mutation (c.1112+2T>C). Proband2 was homozygote for a novel single nucleotide deletion (c.212delA) leading to early stop codon. The discovered

mutations explain the severity of clinical symptoms and the laboratory data. Methods precise in the low activity/antigen range are required to draw valid conclusion on phenotype–genotype relationship. “
“Summary.  Hepatitis C is a major co-morbidity in patients with inherited bleeding disorders, leading to progressive liver fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is a non-invasive way of assessing the extent of liver fibrosis. Dabrafenib This article describes our experience with serial LSM to assess prospectively progression of fibrosis in a cohort of patients with inherited bleeding disorders and chronic hepatitis C. A total of 84 patients underwent serial LSMs, with a median interval of 3.7 years. The change in LSM results over time was assessed. Overall, there was no significant SAR245409 purchase difference between the median results of LSM 1 and LSM 2. The median result of LSM 2 was low (6.6 kPa), after a median duration of

infection of 37 years. On the individual level, deterioration of LSM results of more than 2 kPa was seen in 13 patients (16%), 44 patients (52%) remained stable and 27 patients (32%) showed improvement

of LSM results of more than 2 kPa. These results are comparable with those of MCE paired liver biopsy studies. LSM appears to be a good alternative for liver biopsies in patients with hepatitis C and inherited bleeding disorders, although the interpretation of the unexpected improvement we found in some of our patients is not straightforward. LSMs will be repeated in our patient population in a few years to be able to better assess the value of serial LSM. “
“Summary.  Muscle haematoma represents 10–25% of bleeds in patients with severe haemophilia. There is limited consensus on diagnostic or treatment strategies and little knowledge about the natural history of muscle haematoma and optimal treatment goals. The aim of this review was to perform a systematic description of the natural history of muscle haematoma in healthy athletes, focusing on diagnosis, classification and treatment options. Publications and educational textbooks on management of sports injuries were used as data source. Muscle haematomas occur following contusion, strain, or laceration and can be categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. Muscle haematoma may be inter- or intramuscular. In healthy athletes, the healing process takes 20–40 days.

In conclusion,

In conclusion, check details we agree that the human (donor) liver contains a subset of rare HSCs. However, we disagree that the level of HSCs are comparable to that found in human cord blood,4 which to date, is the richest source. “
“An 86-year-old woman presented with one week of intermittent, crampy, abdominal pain.

On the day of presentation, the abdominal pain became severe and she noticed a lump in the right lower abdomen. Physical exam revealed a firm, tender mass in the right lower quadrant with normoactive bowel sounds. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan (Figure 1) showed a 10 cm segment of ileocecal intussusception with colonic wall thickening and mild mucosal enhancement without bowel obstruction. A semi-urgent right hemicolectomy revealed a polypoid mass at the appendiceal opening that infiltrated the appendiceal lumen (Figure 2; arrow). A diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma arising

within a background of diffuse serrated adenoma of the appendix (Figure 3; inset reveals a representative portion of the background appendiceal mucosa with diffuse involvement by dysplastic serrated adenoma) was made on microscopic examination. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful. While carcinoma of the colon is a common malignancy, primary carcinoma of the appendix is rare. Serrated lesions morphologically analogous to those seen in the colorectum are found in the appendix and there may be a “serrated

pathway of appendiceal learn more neoplasia”. The finding of adenocarcinoma arising in the background of a diffuse serrated adenoma supports the existence of a serrated appendiceal neoplasia MCE公司 pathway. An unusual and dramatic feature of this case is the presentation as colocolonic intussusception. Intussusception occurs when a proximal segment of bowel telescopes into an adjacent distal segment. With an ileocecal intussusception, the ileocecal valve is the lead point of intussusception. Intussuscepting cecal or appendiceal neoplasms, although resembling true ileocecal intussusceptions on radiologic and gross examination, are better classified as colocolonic, because the inciting factor is within the cecum not the ileocecal valve. Diagnosis is most often made by CT and a characteristic finding, as in this case, is a “sausage-shaped” mass. Intussusception is rare in adults, and a primary malignancy, either adenocarcinoma or lymphoma, is the underlying cause in the majority of adult intussusceptions. We are unaware of prior reports of intussusception secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinoma arising from a diffuse serrated adenoma. Contributed by “
“There are key differences between adult and pediatric liver transplantation (LT) with respect to indications, evaluation of candidates, timing/priority for transplant and management.

We produced VSVg pseudotyped lentiviral vectors expressing the mu

We produced VSVg pseudotyped lentiviral vectors expressing the murine Fah complementary DNA (cDNA)

from an internal SFFV promoter. The enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) was coexpressed either by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) or by a 2A proteolytic cleveage site (RRL.PPT.SFFV.eGFP.pre*, RRL.PPT.SFFV.Fah.ires.eGFP.pre*, RRL.PPT.SFFV.Fah.2a.eGFP.pre*).29 The vector supernatants were produced by 293T cells, concentrated with Centricon Plus-70 filter units LBH589 (Millipore, Schwalbach, Germany) and titrated on HepA1.6 cells.30 Viral titers were in the range of 107 to 108 IU/mL. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3 to 6-month-old mice as described.6 For further enrichment of hepatocytes we used discontinuous Percoll (GE Healthcare) gradients. A 25% phase prevented dead cells and debris from entering the gradient. A lower 50% phase facilitated the enrichment of small, highly viable, and robust hepatocytes. For depletion of nonparenchymal liver cells, we used PE (Phycoerythrin)-labeled anti-CD45 and anti-CD31 antibodies (BD Pharmingen), anti-PE MicroBeads on an automated MACS Separator (Miltenyi Biotech, Bergisch Gladbach). Analysis of eGFP expression was performed on day 5 after in vitro transduction of primary murine hepatocytes

or directly after hepatocyte isolation during serial transplantations by FACS. For in vitro experiments, hepatocytes were cultured on Primaria dishes (1.1 × 106 cells/35 cm2) in HCM medium (Lonza). Fah(-/-) hepatocytes isolated from C57Bl/6-Fahtm1Mgo were cultured in the presence of NTBC (9.6 ng/mL) Sirolimus (Swedish Orphan). Transduction (multiplicity of infection [MOI] 10) was performed as previously described by our group.6 RNA from hepatocytes was hybridized on the Affymetrix Mouse 430 2.0 GeneChip.

Data can be found at Geo link http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE34731. LM-PCR was performed and analyzed as described.31, 32 (See also Supporting Material and Methods.) C57Bl/6-Fahtm1Mgo (Fah(-/-)) mice are defective for the Fah gene, which encodes the enzyme fumaryacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah).25 Mice were maintained by supplementation of drinking water with NTBC (4 mg mL-1, Swedish Orphan International).26, 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 27 To allow engraftment of hepatocytes the medication was discontinued For in vivo gene transfer, lentiviral particles were injected in 250 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intrasplenically (∼1 infectious particle / parenchymal liver cell). For ex vivo gene therapy 1 × 106 cultured Fah(-/-) hepatocytes were transduced overnight (MOI 10). For serial hepatocyte transplantation the livers from gene-corrected mice were perfused with collagenase. Aliquots of 0.5 × 106 liver cells were injected in 250 μL PBS into the next generation of Fah(-/-) mice.

Comparisons indicated high sequence variability among known isola

Comparisons indicated high sequence variability among known isolates with overall nucleotide sequence identities of 80 to 84%. A striking variable region was identified among the replicase protein

upstream of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (aa 1510–1590), which showed a 41–43% match with the corresponding region in other isolates. Phylogenetic analysis at the nucleotide level clustered the isolates http://www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html into three groups, without any relation to geographical origin. Recombination analysis showed that the isolate is a recombinant with recombination sites spread throughout the genome, especially in the polymerase gene region (nt 4700–5400). Most recombination sites were bordered by an upstream region (5′) of GC-rich and downstream region (3′) of AU-rich sequences of similar selleck screening library length. Correlation of recombination site with host type is discussed, and it was found that there were more interlineage recombinations in the apple host compared with intralineage recombinations. “
“Zoospores are major dispersal and infective propagules of pythiaceous species. Built upon a recently developed ‘wet-plate’ method, the objectives of this study

were to develop a better understanding about zoospore production biology. Four broth media and five incubation temperatures were evaluated with 12 isolates of Phytophthora nicotianae and 17 other pythiaceous species in this study. The ‘wet-plate’ method worked the best for heterothallic

MCE species, especially those isolates that do not produce chlamydospores. These species included Phytophthora citrophthora, P. nicotianae, Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora tropicalis. They readily produced 105–106 zoospores/ml. Overall, most species and isolates produced more zoospores with 20% clarified V8 broth than the other three media: rye, lima bean and carrot. The optimal temperature for nutrient-deprived culture without free-flowing water to produce sporangia typically is 5°C cooler than that for vegetative growth. Fresh and revived cultures are more prolific than those that had been subcultured multiple times. These findings will assist oomycete researchers, adding quality, productivity and efficiency to their future zoospore-based studies. “
“Pyricularia grisea is the most destructive and cosmopolitan fungal pathogen of rice and it can also cause disease on other agriculturally important cereals. We determined the number, location and interaction of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to P. grisea isolates obtained from rice (THL142 and THL222) and barley (TH16 and THL80) grown in Thailand. The isolates showed a spectrum of virulence when used to inoculate a series of differentials. We used a reference blast resistance mapping population of rice (IR64 × Azucena). IR64 was highly resistant, and Azucena was highly susceptible, to all four isolates. The numbers of resistant vs.

Comparisons indicated high sequence variability among known isola

Comparisons indicated high sequence variability among known isolates with overall nucleotide sequence identities of 80 to 84%. A striking variable region was identified among the replicase protein

upstream of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (aa 1510–1590), which showed a 41–43% match with the corresponding region in other isolates. Phylogenetic analysis at the nucleotide level clustered the isolates find more into three groups, without any relation to geographical origin. Recombination analysis showed that the isolate is a recombinant with recombination sites spread throughout the genome, especially in the polymerase gene region (nt 4700–5400). Most recombination sites were bordered by an upstream region (5′) of GC-rich and downstream region (3′) of AU-rich sequences of similar Opaganib in vitro length. Correlation of recombination site with host type is discussed, and it was found that there were more interlineage recombinations in the apple host compared with intralineage recombinations. “
“Zoospores are major dispersal and infective propagules of pythiaceous species. Built upon a recently developed ‘wet-plate’ method, the objectives of this study

were to develop a better understanding about zoospore production biology. Four broth media and five incubation temperatures were evaluated with 12 isolates of Phytophthora nicotianae and 17 other pythiaceous species in this study. The ‘wet-plate’ method worked the best for heterothallic

MCE species, especially those isolates that do not produce chlamydospores. These species included Phytophthora citrophthora, P. nicotianae, Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora tropicalis. They readily produced 105–106 zoospores/ml. Overall, most species and isolates produced more zoospores with 20% clarified V8 broth than the other three media: rye, lima bean and carrot. The optimal temperature for nutrient-deprived culture without free-flowing water to produce sporangia typically is 5°C cooler than that for vegetative growth. Fresh and revived cultures are more prolific than those that had been subcultured multiple times. These findings will assist oomycete researchers, adding quality, productivity and efficiency to their future zoospore-based studies. “
“Pyricularia grisea is the most destructive and cosmopolitan fungal pathogen of rice and it can also cause disease on other agriculturally important cereals. We determined the number, location and interaction of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to P. grisea isolates obtained from rice (THL142 and THL222) and barley (TH16 and THL80) grown in Thailand. The isolates showed a spectrum of virulence when used to inoculate a series of differentials. We used a reference blast resistance mapping population of rice (IR64 × Azucena). IR64 was highly resistant, and Azucena was highly susceptible, to all four isolates. The numbers of resistant vs.

The study was

conducted with Institutional Review Board a

The study was

conducted with Institutional Review Board approval from each participating center. General demographic data included gender, ethnicity, selleck chemical age at infection, duration of infection to biopsy, source of infection (vertical, transfusion, and unknown), and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores. The putative date of infection was defined as the date of birth in those who acquired HCV vertically, or the date of transfusion or any surgery, presumed exposure to contaminated needles during hospitalization; if none of the above was known, these data were excluded from the calculation of duration of infection to biopsy. Laboratory values within 3 months of the initial and follow-up biopsies including complete blood count, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total and direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, albumin, and HCV RNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were retrieved from retrospective chart review. Viral genotype was included when available. All PLX3397 cell line biopsies were scored for inflammation, fibrosis, and steatosis by a single pathologist to guarantee uniformity of interpretation. They were coded in a uniform manner and the pathologist was blinded to clinical data, the sequence of the biopsies, and the histologic scoring originally performed.[22] Liver biopsies

were evaluated for necroinflammation (grade) with the modified Histology Activity Index (HAI) and fibrosis (stage) by Ishak classification.[22] Demographic data and laboratory values were correlated with histologic grading (grade of inflammation 0-18) and staging (stage of fibrosis 0-6) from the initial and repeat biopsies to assess if there were significant

histologic changes between the biopsies and to identify any factors that predicted progression of liver disease in these children and adolescents. If there were more than two biopsies performed on the same patient, the first and last biopsies were used for statistical analysis. For comparative purposes, necroinflammatory scores were collapsed to none/minimal (HAI: 0-3), mild (4-6), moderate (7-9), and marked ≥10. Fibrosis scores were collapsed to none (stage 0), portal/periportal (stages 1-2), bridging fibrosis and cirrhosis (stages 3-6). Data were organized to enable determination of changes 上海皓元 from the first to the last liver biopsy. Percentages, means, and SDs were calculated in the usual way. For categorical/binary variables, contingency table analysis was used to assess the relationship between two variables with reference to the likelihood ratio chi-square for the P value. The likelihood ratio chi-square was used because it is robust with small sample sizes and small cell sizes. For continuous variables, a standard t test was used for comparison of means between two groups (adjusting for heterogeneity of variance as appropriate) and a standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparison of means among three or more groups. No adjustment was made for multiple comparisons.


“Journal of Zoology is pleased to introduce the first Thom


“Journal of Zoology is pleased to introduce the first Thomas Henry Huxley Review, which aims to celebrate Huxley’s outstanding contributions to zoological research and, in particular, his research on comparative anatomy, physiology and evolutionary biology. Indeed, between 1861 and 1880, Huxley published many of these papers in the Proceedings and Transactions of the Zoological Society London, which merged in 1965 to form the Journal of Zoology. As well as conducting his own research, Huxley was dedicated to improving the understanding and acceptance of the theory of evolution by the scientific community and the wider public. Renowned for his

exploration of the philosophical issues in science, Huxley both advanced the status of scientific research and founded a generation of researchers whose discoveries remain relevant and inspiring HKI-272 nmr today. In accordance with Huxley’s many achievements in the field of zoology, the Thomas Henry Huxley Review will examine our current understanding of a selected zoological theme, and suggest

and inspire research that will improve our knowledge in the future. The journal annually invites a distinguished researcher who has made a major contribution to zoological science to write the review. The first paper in this series, ‘How stupid not to have thought of that: AZD6244 post-copulatory sexual selection’, is written by Tim Birkhead and provides a historical and contemporary account of an area of biology Darwin largely ignored, post-copulatory sexual selection. Professor of Behaviour and Evolution at the University of 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 Sheffield, Tim is dedicated to expanding the minds of undergraduates through his lectures on animal behaviour and the history and philosophy of science. Tim currently serves on the management committee of the Darwin Correspondence Project and has been President of the International Society for Behavioural Ecology. In addition to his passion for research, Tim is committed to advancing the public understanding of science, particularly

through his articles. He has written for New Scientist, BBC Wildlife, Natural History magazine and The Independent and has a regular column in the Times Higher Education. Tim’s outstanding career was further acknowledged when he was elected to a Fellowship of the Royal Society. Given Tim’s extensive research on promiscuity and sperm competition in birds and his flair for writing, he provides an eloquent account of our current understanding of post-copulatory sexual selection as well as an overview of how we have eventually arrived at this current explanation for some of the more unusual phenomena in the biological world. We hope you enjoy reading the first Thomas Henry Huxley Review.

The cervical spinal cord is constrained between the foramen magnu

The cervical spinal cord is constrained between the foramen magnum and the lower border of the C7 vertebral body and the thoracic spinal cord from the upper border of the T1 to the lower border of the T12 vertebral body, using a bounding box. Starting from the midsagittal image a coarse region of interest (ROI) is then placed and by means of a level set evolution is allowed to evolve (expand/contract)

until the spinal cord AZD8055 manufacturer boundary is found (Figs 3B and 4B) and extracted from the image (Figs 3C and 4C). The process is repeated for the para-sagittal slices until all boundaries defining the spinal cord are found. From all the boundaries a 3D spinal cord surface for each segment is produced (Figs 3D and 4D), whose volume is then calculated. The whole procedure takes about 15 minutes of postprocessing time. As previously described2008 inter- and intraobserver variability for this technique was less than or equal to 3%. Also when compared to manual measurement/outlining, considered as ground truth, there was almost perfect correlation of R2 = .978 making this technique suitable for clinical use. HTLV-I proviral load was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, as described previously.1998 The HTLV-I proviral DNA load was calculated by the following

formula: copy number of HTLV-I (pX) per 100 cells = (copy number of pX)/(copy number of β-actin/2) × 100. Data were summarized as mean +/– standard deviation. The Kolomogorov–Smirnov Navitoclax statistic was used to test for normality and the unpaired t-test or Mann–Whitney test was used to assess differences between groups as appropriate. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the relationship between spinal cord volumes and clinical parameters. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. Statistical analysis was performed using Prism version 5 (GraphPad Software, Inc. La Jolla, CA). Subjects with definite HAM/TSP showed significantly 上海皓元 lower spinal cord volumes compared to HVs (Figs 5 and 6). The mean thoracic cord volume for subjects with HAM/TSP was 8,774 ± 2,218 mm3 compared to 14,050 ± 980

mm3 for HVs, representing a 38% reduction in mean thoracic cord volume in subjects with HAM/TSP (P = .0079). Spinal cord atrophy was not limited to the thoracic cord. The mean cervical cord volume for subjects with HAM/TSP was 6,589 ± 897 mm3 compared to 9,721 ± 797 mm3 for HVs, representing a 32% reduction in mean cervical cord volume (P = .0079). The ratio of cervical to thoracic cord volumes for HAM/TSP was .78 compared to .69 for HVs, reflecting the relatively greater volume loss in the thoracic cord of subjects with HAM/TSP. As a group, subjects with HTLV-I infection not meeting criteria for definite HAM/TSP showed a mean cervical cord volume of 9,075 ± 2,095 mm3 and a mean thoracic cord volume of 12,788 ± 3,562 mm3. Although these cord volumes did not differ significantly from those of HVs (P = .56 and P = .

These include

enhanced insulin resistance (IR), altered l

These include

enhanced insulin resistance (IR), altered lipid metabolism, chronic hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and enhancement of inflammatory cytokines. Because IR influences histological severity in NAFLD,21, 22 CS may worsen NAFLD through its effect on IR, glucose intolerance, and diabetes development.23, 24 Changes in lipid metabolism induced by CS may also aggravate NAFLD. Experimental studies have shown that CS aggravates the hepatic steatosis elicited by a high-fat diet in mice25, 26 via enhanced fatty acid synthesis through inhibition of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase phosphorylation in liver tissue.25 Chronic hypoxia, Acalabrutinib a hallmark side effect of CS, induces steatosis, liver inflammation, and fibrosis in mice.27-29 CS also causes oxidative stress,30 a recognized mechanism of injury in NAFLD.31

Mice on an ethanol diet develop increased hepatocellular injury when they are exposed to CS, and they have increased levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, which is known to play a role in oxidative injury in NAFLD.28 Finally, CS may worsen NAFLD by enhancing proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, that are known to play a key role in NAFLD.32 In this issue of HEPATOLOGY, Azzalini et al.33 provide novel evidence suggesting that CS exacerbates liver injury in NAFLD. In their study, control and obese Zucker rats were divided into smoker and nonsmoker groups according to controlled exposure to CS. Exposure to CS increased alanine aminotransferase ALK inhibitor cancer (ALT) levels and increased hepatocellular ballooning and lobular inflammation in the livers of obese rats, whereas significantly smaller changes were noted in control rats. The authors showed that CS increased oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in obese rats. In addition, CS exposure induced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and procollagen alpha 2 synthesis at the transcription level. The effects of CS on the ALT level, histological hepatic injury, and expression of fibrogenic genes occurred only with long-term exposure (4 weeks)

to CS and did not occur with a shorter exposure (5 days). This indicates that the aggravating effects of CS on NAFLD are the result ifenprodil of prolonged exposure to CS. The results of Azzalini et al. provide some elucidation of the underlying mechanisms involved in CS-related liver injury not only in NAFLD but potentially also in other types of CLD. The value of the findings of experimental studies such as this study by Azzalini et al. is further underscored by the fact that it would be impossible to conduct a prospective randomized controlled study of the effects of CS in humans with CLD. Even case-control or cohort studies attempting to isolate the effect of CS on CLD prove to be challenging in the clinical setting and are limited by multiple confounders. Nonetheless, the study by Azzalini et al.33 has some limitations.

05 in all cases) nor differed between sexes (t-test, NS in all ca

05 in all cases) nor differed between sexes (t-test, NS in all cases; Table 1). The

dominant frequency of growling sounds was significantly lower than that of both feeding and courtship clicks (Kruskal–Wallis test: H = 11.9; n = 20, P < 0.01; Dunn's post hoc: P < 0.05). Hippocampus reidi produced two types of sounds: clicks and growling sounds. Although click sound production is commonly known from other members of the family Syngnathidae (e.g. Fish, 1953; Colson et al., 1998; Ripley & Foran, 2007; Anderson, 2009), a ‘tambour’ (=drum) sound was only described by Dufossé Ku0059436 (1874) in H. hippocampus. Similar to other fish, seahorses utter sounds in several behavioural contexts. The best investigated acoustic behaviour in seahorses and pipefishes is the production of clicking sounds selleck chemicals llc during feeding (e.g. Colson et al., 1998; Ripley & Foran, 2007; Anderson, 2009). Moreover, seahorses produce sounds during courtship, in stress situations (Dufossé, 1874; Anderson, 2009; present study), during male–male competition (Colson et al., 1998) and when introduced in a new environment (Fish, 1953). The functional significance of feeding clicks is unknown. Feeding clicks are not related to the success in capturing prey (Anderson, 2009), nor are they restricted

to food intake events because they were also recorded in unsuccessful attempts (T. P. R. Oliveira, pers. obs.). buy MG-132 It is unlikely that they are merely a by-product of prey capture because that may increase predation risk. Anderson (2009) suggested that clicks produced

by H. erectus during feeding signal a food source to a mate or may help in locating potential mates in a population where individuals are sparsely distributed. The duration of the feeding clicks produced by H. reidi was similar to that of H. zosterae (5–20 ms: Colson et al., 1998) and two pipefish species (5–22 ms: Ripley & Foran, 2007), but differed from those produced by the sympatric and morphologically similar H. erectus (110 ms: Anderson, 2009). Interspecific differences in temporal patterns of sounds might be used in species discrimination, especially in sympatric and closely related species (e.g. Myrberg, Spanier & Ha, 1978; Malavasi, Collatuzzo & Torricelli, 2008; Colleye et al., 2011). Sound production during reproductive behaviour is well known in at least 20 fish families, and typically, sounds are produced by males when advertising their territories, while attracting females to their nest sites or during courtship and spawning (for a review, see Myrberg & Lugli, 2006). So far female courtship and spawning sounds are known from the croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata (perciform family Osphronemidae) (Ladich, 2007) and from seahorses. In H. reidi (this study) and H. erectus (Anderson, 2009) both sexes vocalize during courtship, in particular on the last day, before copulation.