We therefore hypothesized that RMSD values derived Z-VAD-FMK mouse from QSI analysis would provide more information on in vivo structural and pathologic changes in the brains of patients with MS, and at higher sensitivity, than do conventional DTI metrics. Our aim here was to investigate the use of RMSD derived from QSI data to characterize plaques, periplaque white matter (PWM), and NAWM in patients with MS. Between December 2011 and August 2012, we evaluated a total of 21 consecutive patients with relapsing–remitting (n = 20) or secondary progressive (n = 1) MS (6 male; 15 female; age [mean ± 1
SD], 44.3 ± 10.06 years; median [range] Expanded Disability Status Scale score , 2.0 [0.0–6.0]) who had a previously established diagnosis of MS according to 2005 revisions to the McDonald Criteria  without acute plaques. Informed consent was obtained from KU-60019 supplier each patient. We obtained ethics approval from the institutional review board before the study. All images were acquired on a 3-T scanner (Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). After routine MRI comprising turbo spin-echo T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery axial imaging, we acquired T1-weighted, sagittal 3D magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition
gradient-echo and QSI data. Imaging parameters for conventional axial images were: repetition time (ms)/echo time (ms): 4000/100 for T2-weighted imaging, 10000/100 for fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery axial imaging; number of signals acquired, two; section thickness/gap, 5/1 mm; 22 sections; and pixel size, 0.45 × 0.45 mm. Imaging parameters for magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition gradient-echo imaging were: repetition time (ms)/echo time (ms), 15/3.5;
number of signals acquired, one; section thickness/gap, 0.86/0 mm; 170 sections; and pixel size, 0.81 × 0.81 mm. Parameters used for QSI were: repetition time (ms)/echo time (ms), 4000/96; number of signals acquired, one; section thickness/gap, 4/0 mm; 10 sections; field of view, 256 × 256 mm; matrix, 64 × 64; imaging time, 4 min 36 s; and 12 b-values (0, 124, 496, 1116, 1983, 3099, 4463, 6074, 7934, 10041, 12397 and 15000 s/mm2), with diffusion encoding in 6 directions for every Cobimetinib mouse b-value. The q-value was linearly incremented from 0 to 104.64 cm− 1 ,  and . The gradient length (δ) and time between the two leading edges of the diffusion gradient (Δ) were 37.8 and 47.3 ms, respectively. QSI was limited to large, semioval areas of white matter to minimize the scanning time to that appropriate for clinical use. After we corrected for distortions due to eddy currents using an affine registration on the magnetic resonance imager, diffusion tensor and q-space analyses were performed with dTV II FZR and Volume-One 1.