The greatest concentrations of O2•− per cell were detected during exponential growth with reduced levels in stationary phases in raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Y. Hara et Chihara, Chattonella marina (Subrahman.) Y. Hara et Chihara, and Chattonella antiqua (Hada) Ono (strain 18). Decreasing trends from exponential to stationary phases for SOD activity and H2O2 per cell were observed in all species tested. Significant correlations between O2•−
per cell and SOD activity per cell over growth phase were only observed in three raphidophytes (Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua strain 18), likely due to different cellular http://www.selleckchem.com/products/atezolizumab.html locations BVD-523 of externally released O2•− radicals and intracellular SOD enzymes measured in this study. CAT activity was greatest at early exponential phase for several raphidophytes, but correlations between H2O2 per cell and CAT activity per cell were only observed for Fibrocapsa japonica Toriumi et Takano, Chattonella antiqua (strain 18), and Chattonella subsalsa Biecheler. Our results suggest that SOD and CAT play important protective roles against ROS during exponential growth of several raphidophytes, while other antioxidant pathways
may play a larger role for scavenging ROS during later growth. “
“Brachidinium capitatum F. J. R. Taylor, typically considered a rare oceanic dinoflagellate, and one which has not been cultured, was observed at elevated abundances (up to 65 cells · mL−1) at a coastal station in the western Gulf of Mexico in the fall of 2007. Continuous selleck chemical data from the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) provided cell images that documented the bloom during 3 weeks in early November. Guided by IFCB observations, field collection permitted phylogenetic analysis and evaluation of the relationship between Brachidinium and Karenia. Sequences from SSU,
LSU, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and cox1 regions for B. capitatum were compared with five other species of Karenia; all B. capitatum sequences were unique but supported its placement within the Kareniaceae. From a total of 71,487 images, data on the timing and frequency of dividing cells was also obtained for B. capitatum, allowing the rate of division for B. capitatum to be estimated. The maximum daily growth rate estimate was 0.22 d−1. Images showed a range in morphological variability, with the position of the four major processes highly variable. The combination of morphological features similar to the genus Karenia and a phylogenetic analysis placing B. capitatum in the Karenia clade leads us to propose moving the genus Brachidinium into the Kareniaceae.