Further investigations are needed to identify new gene-environmen

Further investigations are needed to identify new gene-environment associations. Most of the reported risk factors in reviewed papers are weak. However, we have to note that multiple risk factors contribute the CL/P etiology, therefore the effect of each factor is rather small. Poor maternal nutritional status leads to many complications, in both the short and long term.

The first few weeks of embryo development are particularly sensitive to changes in the maternal environment reflecting changes in the external world. Although most factors appear to explain very little of the population burden of CL/P, maternal nutritional factors do appear to substantially contribute to the complex etiologies of CL/P. There are buy Enzalutamide very few exposures for which the available information is sufficient to make fully evidence-based recommendations regarding the clinical management of teratogenic risks in humans. Nevertheless, physicians must advise pregnant women about identified potential risks [88] and the reviewed papers delivered some new data regarding what constitutes a healthy diet and lifestyle during pregnancy. Experiments with livestock species show that sound nutritional

management LDK378 ic50 at key stages in the reproductive process provides an acceptable and effective way to improve the reproductive outcome, not only in terms of the number of offspring born, but also in terms of their physiological well-being and viability [89]. The overarching principles of nutrition are believed to be similar among mammals [89]. If a type of diet has been used for a “long time” without adverse effects being reported, does this represent good evidence that it is safe to use in periconceptional period? Less potent teratogens and unhealthy diet patterns may remain undetected for long periods. Phenytoin was used from 1938 as an antiepileptic drug, while its teratogenic effects were only suggested 30 years after its introduction to the market Baricitinib and supported in 1973 [90]. Very often physicians simply tell women to eat “a healthy diet” and gain appropriate weight during pregnancy. However,

to achieve this, they need to show direction to do so properly [91]. Prospective parents should discuss important health behaviors that may affect a pregnancy such as vitamin and micronutrient intake, lifestyle, and occupation with their medical care provider. Until now, conclusive evidence was provided for periconceptional folate and the prevention of neural tube defects [14]. The information from the reviewed research reports regarding the homeostasis of trace elements [22, 25], citrulline [26], and lipid-soluble vitamins [19, 20] is somewhat limited and preliminary. However, it could be useful while preparing some reasonable guidelines for prospective parents, who wish to minimize their chances of having a baby with CL/P.

Specific murine IgG2a isotype controls were used to monitor non-s

Specific murine IgG2a isotype controls were used to monitor non-specific binding. Stained peritoneal cells were washed

with PBS containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS), pelleted by centrifugation at 400 × g and fixed with PBS containing 1% (w/v) paraformaldehyde. A total of 30,000 events were acquired (FACSCanto™; Becton Dickinson, CA, USA) using the FACS Diva software (version 6.1.3) for data acquisition and analysis. Data were expressed as the mean ± SEM. Statistical variations were analyzed using multi-factorial ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically I-BET-762 mw significant. The response of mice to the i.p. injection of Ts2 or Ts6 was studied by evaluating the influx of leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity. Ts2 or Ts6 i.p. inoculation in mice induced an increase of total leukocyte (Fig. 1A) and neutrophil (Fig. 1B) numbers Alectinib purchase in the peritoneal cavity throughout the experimental time course (4, 24, 48 and 96 h). The mononuclear cells were increased after 4 and 96 h post Ts2 injection compared to mice inoculated with PBS. Ts6 increased

mononuclear cells only after 96 h (Fig. 1C). We also determined the acute phase protein levels in the peritoneal fluid of mice injected with Ts2 or Ts6 (Fig. 2). Compared to control, the total protein levels of the peritoneal fluid peaked between 24 and 48 h and then decreased at 96 h after injection with Ts2 or Ts6 (Fig. 2). Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ts2 or Ts6 induced an inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity, mainly during the first 24 h. Fig. 3 shows the profile of inflammatory cytokines released in the peritoneal cavity after the injection with Ts2 or Ts6. We demonstrated that Ts2 and Ts6 altered the release of specific cytokines in a time-dependent manner. Ts2 augmented the release of IL-6, IFN-γ and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 at 4 h (Fig. 3A, D and E, respectively); 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl at 24 h, however, only IL-10 was increased (Fig. 3E). At 48 h post Ts2 injection, there was an increase in the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 (Fig. 3B, D, E and F, respectively), while at 96 h, we only observed an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 (Fig. 3B,

C and E, respectively). Additionally, we observed a mild difference in the cytokine profile following the Ts6 injection compared to Ts2. After 4 h, Ts6 increased the release of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ (Fig. 3A–D, respectively), while only the release of IFN-γ was increased at 24 h (Fig. 3D). At 48 h, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were increased (Fig. 3B and D), while only TNF-α was increased after 96 h (Fig. 3B). For comparison, the changes in the corresponding cytokine release were also measured in a control group of mice that received PBS injection. To determine whether LTB4 and PGE2 are produced as a result of the toxin injection, groups of mice were i.p. inoculated with Ts2 or Ts6 and the peritoneal fluid was collected after 4, 24, 48 and 96 h.

Apart from radioactivity, there are chemicals, which were spread

Apart from radioactivity, there are chemicals, which were spread all over the region,

that should be measured in the coastal and terrestrial locations of tsunami hit areas. For example, the tsunami caused by the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake inundated a total area of approximately 470 km2 in Japan. The earthquake and the tsunami caused destruction or damage of 125,000 buildings, heavy damage to roads and railways. During these incidents many electrical generators were taken down. The waves swept away thousands of cars and other vehicles and flooded various buildings as they traveled inland. Some small towns in the tsunami hit areas were destroyed entirely, thus carrying away a variety of materials selleck chemical see more with them

and scattered them all over the tsunami hit areas. The degree and extent of damage was enormous and the worst affected coastal towns were left as only piles of rubble, with almost no parts of any structure left standing. Even some of the anti-tsunami seawalls collapsed. To date, there are trillions of pieces of composite rubble, comprising more than 25 million tons, are laying in the tsunami hit areas, waiting to be disposed of by the agencies involved in this job. The complexity of the waste to be disposed may pose a serious threat of environmental pollution, which should also be monitored along with the effects of nuclear disaster. Northern Japan, where the tsunami hit, has a cold

climate and almost all the buildings were built with wood and Tau-protein kinase cement and were invariably packed with variety of heat insulating materials containing flame retardants to keep the houses warm and also to prevent accidental fire. All these materials are now being inundated by seawater containing halide ions. All these wood and allied material are now soaked by seawater and even after drying they will contain enough chlorine and bromine to form chlorinated and brominated dioxins and related chemicals, if they are burnt under low temperature conditions. Along with these, large quantities of BFRs (brominated flame retardants) and other POPs chemicals like PCBs will also be released during such burning of waste. Such an enormous quantity of burnable material, if they can be segregated at all, cannot be handled by the high quality incinerator facilities, and this may lead to low temperature burning. The agencies involved in the disposal of these materials are now considering various means for doing this, but if this takes a long time, the public have to resort to open burning of the rubble around their destroyed houses, in small heaps. On the other hand, if these wastes can be land-filled at all, again there will be long lasting contamination of nearby aquatic and terrestrial environments, by leaching and land runoff of complex chemical mixtures.

In the first of these [26], we studied the effect of electrostati

In the first of these [26], we studied the effect of electrostatic fields on the rate Selleckchem OSI-906 of drying of wet materials. It is well known from the study of transport phenomena that a thin layer of relatively inert air exists at the surface of most materials where the relative velocity of gas flow asymptotically drops to zero. These surface boundary layers both interfere with the diffusion of gases out of the material and limit the rate of convective heat transfer into it (e.g., [3], [6] and [7]).

It is also known that an electric or “corona” wind is generated on the surface of electrically charged objects as a result of ions leaving the surface, and this wind can cause a marked increase in heat conduction at a surface by disrupting the stagnant surface boundary layer [2], [4], [8], [27], [31] and [37]. This electrostatic effect per ion is several orders of magnitude above thermal noise. In our previous study, we found that electrostatic fields comparable to those used in CAS freezers were able to disrupt the inert surface boundary layer of air molecules, and dramatically shorten drying times [26]. We therefore argue here that

the high-voltage NU7441 mw electrostatic fields applied in the CAS freezers are increasing the cooling efficiency by disrupting the surface boundary layer of inert gas at the surface of their materials. The cooling enhancements shown by Owada et al. [34] are, in fact, similar in style to that we reported previously [26]. Hence, either DC or AC high-voltage electric fields would be expected to promote rapid heat removal needed for supercooling. An intrinsically more interesting question concerns the possible mechanism of action of the weak, oscillating magnetic fields on cryopreservation. There are only four possible physical coupling mechanisms that can yield interaction effects of oscillating magnetic fields with matter (electrical induction, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism). However, for low-frequency fields weaker than a few hundred uT, all except

ferromagnetism do not work, with peak interaction energies well below the thermal noise limit. We are in complete agreement with Wowk [44] on this. However, particles of ferromagnetic materials can interact hundreds to thousands of times stronger with earth-strength Methane monooxygenase magnetic fields than the background thermal energy (see discussion by Kirschvink [19]). Owada et al. [34] and [35] and Wowk [44] did not consider the well-known presence of ferromagnetic materials, principally biologically-precipitated magnetite (Fe3O4), in a wide range of biological tissues (see [13], [20], [30], [39], [40], [41] and [43], for example). These observations have been replicated widely (e.g., [5], [9], [11], [14], [15], [16] and [36]). Brain tissues in humans have been studied extensively [5], [9], [10], [11], [16], [21], [22] and [36], and magnetite deposits in specialized cells are extensive [24] and [25].

In addition, a study of autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rick

In addition, a study of autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets (ADHR) patients and controls indicated a negative relationship between serum iron and FGF23 concentrations [4]. Furthermore a study of mice with ADHR has shown that a diet low in iron can induce elevated FGF23 concentrations [5]. Studies in children in The Gambia, West Africa have shown that anaemia is endemic and that iron deficiency is the predominant cause of anaemia throughout the year [6]. A national

survey conducted in 2001 indicated that 76% of Gambian children under the age of 5 y had anaemia, defined as having haemoglobin (Hb) < 11.0 g/dl [7]. In addition, cases of non-vitamin D deficiency rickets have been reported in Gambian children with chronically elevated Selleckchem Vemurafenib circulating FGF23 concentrations [8]. It has been proposed that a chronically low dietary calcium supply resulting in a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)-driven increase in FGF23 concentration and consequent excessive urinary phosphate loss may be contributing to the aetiology of Gambian rickets [8] and [9]. To investigate the possible link between iron status and FGF23 concentration a post-hoc analysis was conducted on existing data from previous studies on Gambian children both with and without a family or personal history of rickets-like bone deformities. Hb was used as the only available marker of iron status and data collection was conducted predominantly

outside of the see more malaria season. The aims of this analysis were to identify any relationship between circulating concentrations of Hb and FGF23, to identify any differences in this relationship between Gambian children with and without a history of rickets-like bone deformities and to consider if iron may be involved in FGF23 metabolic pathways. Existing data were obtained from three studies conducted previously at MRC Keneba, The Gambia. Written informed consent was obtained from parents of children involved in the three studies. Ethical approval for the original studies and the analysis of existing data was given

by The Gambian Government/MRC Laboratories Joint Ethics Committee. check details Data from children under the age of 18.0 y with no acute illness a week prior to the study and with measurements for both FGF23 and Hb were included. Data from 32 of the 35 children with a history of rickets-like bone deformities (BD Index) as described in [9] and their siblings (n = 76) (BD Siblings) were obtained from an aetiological follow-up study of rickets in The Gambia and were selected on the basis of fitting the inclusion criteria (see Patients and study design section). Measurements of these children were made between May–September 2006. At presentation the BD Index children were characterised by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration in the normal range, elevated FGF23 and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and a low plasma phosphate (P) concentration.

glabrata biofilms were not PIT-dependent and showed higher absorb

glabrata biofilms were not PIT-dependent and showed higher absorbance values commonly found under most of the experimental conditions presented. Regarding C. dubliniensis biofilms results, after 4 min of irradiation, there was no clear tendency to be PIT-dependent, showing a different behaviour from

C. albicans. A recent study also found that C. dubliniensis tended to be more resistant to PDT effects when compared to C. albicans. 55 The authors showed that higher concentrations of erythrosine were necessary to achieve the same microbial reduction observed for C. albicans and only a 0.21 log10 reduction on CFU/mL of C. dubliniensis biofilms where obtained when exposed to PDT mediated by 400 μM erythrosine and a green LED. 55 Therefore, more studies are necessary to identify biological reasons of different response to PDT among different species of Candida. Cur-mediated PDT was shown to be effective Gemcitabine in vitro against Candida biofilms. Reductions of 94%, 89% and 85% in cell viabilities were observed for C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. dubliniensis, respectively. Photosensitisers may need a longer time to penetrate into the depth of the biofilms 12 to achieve intimate contact with the specimens in order to obtain more

effective action. The 20 min PIT associated with 40 μM Cur resulted in the highest reductions in cell viability. Whilst it is not suggested A-1210477 concentration that PDT will replace conventional therapy, improvements may be obtained using the photodynamic approach in the clinical treatment of local infection,30 and Cur-mediated PDT may exhibit benefits in the treatment of oral candidiasis of immunocompromised patients and/or in cases of long-term use of medications, in Farnesyltransferase which the emergence of resistant strains is likely to occur. Based on the experimental conditions of this study and in accordance with the methodology used, it was possible to conclude that PDT with the association of Cur and blue LED light was effective in decreasing cell viabilities of the three Candida

species evaluated. For the planktonic cultures, photoinactivation was concentration-dependent, but not PIT-dependent. The further combination of 20 μM Cur and LED light at 5.28 J/cm2 output promoted complete inactivation of the suspensions after 5, 10 and 20 min time intervals of PIT. On the other hand, Cur-mediated PDT was shown to be effective against Candida biofilms, with reductions of 94%, 89% and 85% in the cell viabilities of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. dubliniensis, respectively. As observed in CLSM images, Cur needed a longer time to show a more intense brightness deeper in the biofilm, and, in this way, achieve intimate contact with the organisms and obtain more effective action. Thus, the highest reductions in cell viability for the biofilm cultures were achieved after associating 40 μM Cur with 20 min of PIT. CAPES/DS (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior). None to declare.

Importantly, CD5 was one of only two proteins identified with at

Importantly, CD5 was one of only two proteins identified with at least INCB024360 2 peptides specifically in the VLR32-containing IP compared to the ‘minus-VLR32’ negative control.

The other identified protein, myosin-9 was only identified with 2 spectra from 2 unique peptides, corresponding to a sequence coverage of only 1%. Using this approach we determined that VLR32 immunoprecipitations contained the CD5 antigen (Table 2). We verified these results in parallel experiments testing the reactivity of VLR32 with cells transfected with CD5–GFP fusion constructs, by western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments. VLR32, but not the negative control VLR4, was able to detect CD5–GFP fusion proteins in cell lysates from transiently transfected HEK293T cells (Fig. 3A). This PLX4032 reactivity was limited to lysates separated under non-reducing conditions as separation of cell lysates under reducing conditions abolished VLR32 binding (data not shown). In additional experiments, we demonstrated that VLR32 but not the negative control VLR4

precipitated CD5–GFP fusion proteins from cell lysates of transiently transfected HEK293T cells (Fig. 3B) and that VLR32 but not VLR4 stained HEK293T cells transfected with CD5 expression constructs in flow cytometry experiments (Fig. 3C). These experiments demonstrate the CD5-specificity of VLR32. Prior studies of VLR antibodies suggest that binding of the antibody to the antigen is avidity-based and that the affinity of

the individual antigen-binding unit to the antigen is often comparatively low (Herrin et al., 2008 and Kirchdoerfer et al., 2012). To investigate the affinity versus avidity-based binding of VLR32 to the CD5 antigen, we generated monomeric VLR32 antibodies by deleting the C-terminal 42 residues of the VLR antibody. As PtdIns(3,4)P2 expected, the resulting individual VLR units displayed a slightly faster migration pattern compared to full-length VLR proteins (Fig. 3B). Only the multimeric VLR32 was able to bind to CD5 efficiently as shown for immunoprecipitation (Fig. 3B) and flow cytometry analyses (Fig. 3D). VLR binding was not detected by flow cytometry using the monomeric VLR32 (Fig. 3D) and only a weak signal was obtained for immunoprecipitated CD5–GFP using the monomeric VLR32 (Fig. 3B). These data indicate an avidity-based contribution to the binding of the VLR32 lamprey antibody to human CD5. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that monoclonal lamprey VLR antibodies can be used for purification and mass spectrometry-based identification of cell surface expressed protein antigens. Unlike conventional immunoglobulin-based antibodies, VLR antibodies utilize their leucine-rich repeats as basic structural units, resulting in a fundamentally different protein architecture of antigen receptors.

“Freshwater fish are an important source of protein, but t

“Freshwater fish are an important source of protein, but they also contain other highly nutritive

components such as fats. Lipids are fundamental to the health, survival and success of fish populations (Adams, 1998). The functions these molecules have in the growth of the fish are well defined, namely: energy, structural, hormonal and biochemical precursors of eicosanoids, among others (Haliloglu, Abdulkadir, Sirkecioglu, Aras, & Atamnalp, 2004). Within lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are required for normal growth and development, especially by maintaining structural and functional integrity of membranes (Sargent & La Mcevoy, 1997 and Navarro et al., 2010a). In addition, the prevention of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Bafilomycin A1 purchase rheumatoid arthritis, depression, postpartum depression, cancers, diabetes, anti-inflammatory action, among others are some of the benefits of PUFA to human health (Puwastien et al., 1999 and Sanderson et al., 2002). Vitamin E is important for many physiological

processes in animals. Its antioxidant role in cell membranes prevents fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation (Guerra et al., 2004 and Navarro et al., 2009), thereby promoting PUFA and subcellular particle stabilization. Consequently, vitamin E prevents the formation of toxic lipid peroxides that can damage biological membranes, blood vessels, change BLZ945 capillary permeability and produce a number of pathologies in vertebrates (Fogaça & Sant’Ana, 2007).

Tocher et al. (2002) showed that diet supplementation with vitamin E increases the growth of juvenile sea bream and decreases the levels of lipid peroxidation products in both sea bream and turbot (Psetta maxima) tissues. It is believed that vitamin E and PUFA content in tissues is closely related ( Izquierdo & Ferna´ndez-Palacios, 1997). Both nutrients have a synergetic effect on nonspecific immune responses and resistance against diseases Aldol condensation in the bastard halibut (Paralychthis olivaceous) ( Wang et al., 2006). Bai and Lee (1998) found increased levels of linoleic (18:2, n-6), γ-linolenic (18:3, n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3) associated to high vitamin E levels, as well as an increase in arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) levels associated to an elevated vitamin E levels to 120 mg/kg diet. Therefore, PUFA content must combine with vitamin E levels to protect against physiological oxidation ( Sargent & La Mcevoy, 1997). Given that fishery products are important ingredients for improving the nutritional status of consumers, studies that assess fatty acid and antioxidant content in fish diet are crucial to increasing fish meat quality.

, 2013 and Wijekoon

, 2013 and Wijekoon RG 7204 et al., 2011). Comparison of all evaluated extractions with methanol and acetone aqueous solutions revealed that most of the acetone solutions extracted more phenolic compounds than the

hydro-methanolic solutions. The optimisation procedure was conducted in order to simultaneously maximise the total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP and also to minimise DPPH values. The final result for this optimisation suggested that extraction with 84.5% methanol for 15 min, at 28 °C, and extraction with 65% acetone for 20 min, at 10 °C were the best solutions for this combination of variables. These new extractions were submitted to the same experimental analytical procedures as those applied from the beginning of this study. The observed and predicted values, along with the computed absolute errors (AE) for methanolic extraction were: total phenolics (mg/100 g) (observed: 590.82 ± 5.54; predicted: 588.81; AE = 0.34%), total flavonoids (mg/100 g) (observed: 165.55 ± 1.39; predicted: 164.47; AE = 0.66%), DPPH (mg/100 g) (observed: 2439.89 ± 72.55; predicted: 2441.10; AE = 0.05%), FRAP (μM/100 g) (observed: 1863.78 ± 24.67; predicted: 1835.31; AE = 1.55%). For extraction with the acetone solutions, the observed and predicted values, along with the computed

absolute errors (AE), were: total phenolics (mg/100 g) C646 cell line (observed: 738.23 ± 10.52; predicted: 711.59; AE = 3.74%), total flavonoid content (mg/100 g) (observed: 334.45 ± 2.72; predicted: 325.09; AE = 2.88%), DPPH (mg/100 g) (observed: 1856.00 ± 19.90; predicted: 1958.06; AE = 5.20%), FRAP (μM/100 g) (observed: 1960.13 ± 54.43; predicted: 1934.36; AE = 1.33%). Because of the low absolute error values obtained by the comparison between observed and predicted values, the proposed model could be used to predict the response value. The phenolic profile of the extracts was determined in the best conditions of extraction for phenolic and antioxidant capacity (Table 5). The chromatograms of phenolic compounds analysed are shown in

Fig. 1. Gallic, coumaric and caffeic acid, phloretin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were not detected in the samples analysed by HPLC. Except for chlorogenic acid and phloridzin, the extract from the acetone 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl solution had the highest content (p ⩽ 0.05) of the individual phenols analysed. These results showed that the recovery of phenolic compounds is influenced by the polarity of the solvent used, as reported in other studies ( Kchaou et al., 2013 and Wijekoon et al., 2011). Methanol and acetone seem to have different specificities in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in methanolic extractions had a significant (p ⩽ 0.05) correlation with antioxidant capacity measured by the DPPH (r = −0.75; r = −0.52, respectively) and FRAP (r = 0.62; r = 0.53, respectively) assays.

This test consisted of preparing microemulsions, after which thei

This test consisted of preparing microemulsions, after which their stability was monitored by simple visual inspection of the emulsion samples. In these experiments, the propan-1-ol was tested in the range of 2 to 9 mL, using 0.5 g of vegetable oil

sample and 100 μL of hydrochloric acid. Water was added under continuous agitation until a final volume of 10 mL. The results indicated that only volumes of propan-1-ol higher than 8 mL produced emulsions that remained homogeneous. Therefore, after the addition of sample JNJ 26481585 and hydrochloric acid aliquot, the final volume of 10 mL was completed with the alcohol, avoiding phase separation when the absorbance measurements were performed. Additionally, the stability of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn concentrations in the microemulsion were checked every 30 min, for 240 min. The signal was stable during the monitoring time, indicating stability of see more the analytes. One of the principal problems related with the determination of trace elements in organic matrix is the lack of knowledge about the form of the analyte in the sample. The standard addition techniques provide the compatibility among the calibration curves and samples in terms of possible matrix interferences, but also may provide errors since the forms of element compounds in the materials to be analysed behave differently to the spiked form (dos Santos et

al., 2007). Due to this, the feasibility Reverse transcriptase of using aqueous standards for calibration was evaluated by the comparison with the standard addition using metal-organic standards. The resulting equations and their respective correlation coefficients are shown in Table 2. As can be seen, the slopes of the calibration curves obtained using either inorganic or organic standards are very similar. This means that the Cu, Fe Ni and Zn present in vegetable oils samples can be determined through the calibration technique using either inorganic or organic standards. Table 3 presents the limits of detection (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) in samples,

as well the precision for the determination of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in vegetable oils prepared as microemulsion by HR-CS FAAS. The LOD and LOQ of each analyte were calculated as the analyte concentration corresponding to three and ten times, respectively, the standard deviation for ten independent measurements of the microemulsion blank, divided by the slope of the calibration curve. The precision was evaluated as the relative standard deviation (RSD). In Table 3, the RSD range obtained for all samples are shown. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cu, Fe Ni and Zn in vegetable oils samples obtained from local vendors. Initially, the method was verified through spike recovery tests, by adding 2.0 and 4.