In 2007, Dr Robert Sears, the popular pediatrician known as “Dr

In 2007, Dr. Robert Sears, the popular pediatrician known as “Dr Bob” published a book – The Vaccine Book: Making the Right Decision for Your Child – where he offered “Dr Bob’s Alternative Vaccine Schedule”, a formula by which parents can delay, withhold, separate, or space out vaccines. The proposed new schedule was based on no scientific data [15]. Regarding parents who are afraid of the MMR vaccine, he writes: “I also warn them not to share their fears with neighbors, because if too many people avoid the MMR, we’ll likely

see the diseases increase significantly” [16]. He was simply asking those parents to delay vaccination Pifithrin�� or skip them while hiding in the highly vaccinated population. In 2009, the Vaccine Court denied the claims of more than 4000 parents of children with autism who Doramapimod nmr claimed their children were harmed by vaccines. The court found in favor of the science that demonstrates no causal relationship between vaccines and autism, adding that petitioners had “fallen far short” of establishing such a link [11]. Finally, in January 2010, the British General Council issued the results of its years-long

inquiry into Andrew Wakefield’s research. The 143 page report concluded that Wakefield acted unethically and with “callous disregard” for his patients [17]. In February 2010, The Lancet formally retracted the Andrew Wakefield study asserting a link between the MMR vaccine and autism [18]. Immunizations were introduced in the USA in 1809 in Massachusetts, to prevent and control smallpox outbreaks. In 1905, in the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts, the U.S. Supreme Court endorsed the rights of states to pass and enforce Ibrutinib order compulsory vaccination laws. In 1922, the Supreme Court found the school immunization requirement to be constitutional.

The modern era of immunization laws in the USA began in 1960′s and 1970′s and was associated with difficulties to control measles outbreaks. In 1969, a total of 17 states had laws that required children to be vaccinated against measles before entering school and 12 states required vaccination against all six diseases for which routine immunizations were carried out at the time. By the beginning of the 1980′s, all 50 states had school immunization requirements [19]. There are differences between states because the requirements are state-based. All states permit certain exemptions. As of August 2011, all states permitted medical exemptions from school immunization requirements, 48 states allowed religious exemptions, and 20 states allowed exemptions based on philosophical or personal beliefs [20]. With the increasing activity of the anti-vaccination movement, especially active in the media, particularly in the Internet, the number of vaccine exemptions is rising. Between 1991 and 2004, the mean state-level rate of nonmedical exemptions increased from 0.98 to 1.48%.

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