Note the difference in units for HBV DNA levels. In the current Guidelines and in Japan in general, HBV DNA is expressed as copies/mL, but elsewhere the unit IU/mL is used (IU stands for international units). The AASLD, EASL and APASL guidelines all use IU/mL. Table 10 shows conversion rates between IU/mL and copies/mL. For example, the general treatment cutoff of 2000 IU/mL is equivalent to 4.07 log copies/mL (conversion rate 5.82) using the TaqMan method (Roche). Note that conversion rates may differ between real-time PCR methods; for example,
the same treatment standard would be 3.83 log copies/mL (conversion rate 3.41) using the AccuGene method (Abbott). Further research is required into these discrepancies. TaqMan (Roche) (×5.82) 116 9.9×108 AccuGene (Abbott) (×3.41) 34 3.4×109 Recommendation Real-time PCR is recommended for HBV DNA quantification in the clinical setting. Ixazomib nmr HBsAg is an antigen within the HBV envelope that is present within the blood as the Dane particle as well as empty particles, small spherical particles and tubular particles, all of which are generated from covalently closed FDA approved Drug Library price circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocytes, as shown in Figure 2. Qualitative reagents have traditionally been used for measuring HBsAg and for the diagnosis of hepatitis B. But recent
years have seen the development of a number of new quantitative reagents with considerable
potential for prognosis and evaluation of therapeutic effects.[64, Y-27632 nmr 65] Table 11 lists reagents used for measuring HBsAg. Mono (two types) Mono (two types) Mono (various) Mono (two types) Mono (two types) Mono (various) Mono (two types) 0.1∼2000 C.O.I. 0.05∼250 IU/mL (manual/auto dilution) 0.03∼2500 IU/mL (auto dilution) 0.005∼150 IU/mL (auto dilution) Observations generated by qualitative reagents are expressed in terms of a cut-off index (COI), where a value of 1.0 or higher is deemed positive and higher measurements are semiquantitative, used for reference purposes. Common quantitative reagents include Architect (Abbott) and HISCL (Sysmex). Table 11 shows the threshold criteria and measurement ranges in IU/mL. Quantification covers a wide range through dilution. A newly developed quantitative reagent for HBsAg called Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ claims ten times the sensitivity of conventional reagents, and shows considerable potential for clinical settings. HBsAg levels vary in accordance with factors such as age, HBV DNA levels and HBV genotype. HBV DNA is considered unsuitable for evaluating therapeutic effects because the HBV DNA levels often falls below the limit of detection shortly after the commencement of antiviral treatment. Several reports therefore recommend monitoring the HBsAg levels over time instead.